Galilee campaign (67)

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Galilee Campaign
Part of the First Jewish–Roman War
DateApril–December 67 CE
Location
Result Roman victory
Belligerents
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire

Menora Titus.jpg Judean provisional government

  • Northern Command
Zealot factions
Commanders and leaders
Vespasian
Titus
Josephus Flavius Template:POW
John of Giscala
Justus of Tiberias[1] Template:KIA
Units involved

X Fretensis
V Macedonica
Legio XV Apollinaris

Several cohorts of auxiliaries.
Judean command in Galilee
Zealot rebel factions
Strength
60,000[2] soldiers and auxilaries 60,000 Jewish militias
Casualties and losses
100,000 Judean rebels and civilians dead[3]

The Galilee campaign, also known as the Northern Revolt, took place in the year 67, when Roman general Vespasian invaded Galilee under the orders of Emperor Nero in order to crush the Great Revolt of Judea.

Timeline

After the defeat of Gallus' army at Bet Horon in the year 66, Emperor Nero appointed general Vespasian, instead of Gallus to crush the Judean rebellion. Vespasian, along with legions X Fretensis and V Macedonica, landed at Ptolemais in April 67. There he was joined by his son Titus, who arrived from Alexandria at the head of Legio XV Apollinaris, as well as by the armies of various local allies including that of king Agrippa II. Fielding more than 60,000 soldiers, Vespasian began operations by subjugating Galilee.[2] Many Galilean towns gave up without a fight, although others had to be taken by force. Of these, Josephus provides detailed accounts of the sieges of Gamla and Yodfat.

Casualties

Based on questionable numbers from Josephus, it has been estimated that the Roman vanquishing of Galilee resulted in 100,000 Jews killed or sold into slavery.[3][4][5]

Aftermath

By the year 68, Jewish resistance in the north had been crushed, and Vespasian made Caesarea Maritima his headquarters and methodically proceeded to cleanse the coastline of the country, avoiding direct confrontation with the rebels at Jerusalem.

References

  1. Bradley W. Root. First Century Galilee: A Fresh Examination of the Sources. Mohr Siebeck. 2014.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Rocca S. 2008. The Forts of Judea 168 BCE – CE 73. Osprey, Wellingborough, pp. 37–39, 47–48.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Ancient Jewish History: The Great Revolt (66 – 70 CE)" Jewish Virtual Library
  4. Broshi, Magen (1979-10-01). "The Population of Western Palestine in the Roman-Byzantine Period". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 236 (236): 1–10. doi:10.2307/1356664. ISSN 0003-097X. JSTOR 1356664.
  5. Byatt, Anthony (1973-01-01). "Josephus and Population Numbers in First Century Palestine". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 105 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1179/peq.1973.105.1.51. ISSN 0031-0328.