Hebron

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Hebron
Arabic transcription(s)
 • Arabicالخليل
 • LatinḤebron (ISO 259-3)
Al-Khalīl (official)
Al-Ḫalīl (unofficial)
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • Hebrewחברון
Downtown Hebron
Downtown Hebron
Official logo of Hebron
Municipal Seal of Hebron
Nickname(s): 
City of the Patriarchs
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Palestine grid159/103
StateState of Palestine
GovernorateHebron
Government
 • TypeCity (from 1997)
 • Head of MunicipalityTayseer Abu Sneineh[1]
Area
 • TotalTemplate:Infobox settlement/dunam
Population
 (2016)[3]
 • Total215,452
 • DensityFormatting error: invalid input when rounding/km2 (Formatting error: invalid input when rounding/sq mi)
Websitewww.hebron-city.ps

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Template:Designation/divbox
Official nameHebron/Al-Khalil Old Town
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv, vi
Reference1565
Inscription2017 (41st Session)
Endangered2017–
Area20.6 ha
Buffer zone152.2 ha

Hebron (Arabic: الخليل أو الخليل الرحمنAbout this soundal-Khalīl or al-Khalil al-Rahman[4][5]; Hebrew: חֶבְרוֹןAbout this soundḤevron) is a Palestinian[6][7][8][9] city in the southern West Bank, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 metres (3,050 ft) above sea level. The largest city in the West Bank, and the second largest in the Palestinian territories after Gaza, it has a population of over 215,000 Palestinians (2016),[10] and seven hundred Jewish settlers concentrated on the outskirts of the Old City of Hebron.[11] It includes the Cave of the Patriarchs, which Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions all designate as the burial site of three key patriarchal/matriarchal couples.[12] Judaism ranks Hebron the second-holiest city after Jerusalem,[13]

Hebron is a busy hub of West Bank trade, generating roughly a third of the area's gross domestic product, largely due to the sale of limestone from quarries in its area.[14] It has a local reputation for its grapes, figs, limestone, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories, and has the major dairy-product manufacturer al-Juneidi. The old city of Hebron features narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, and old bazaars. The city is home to Hebron University and the Palestine Polytechnic University.[15][16]

Etymology

The name "Hebron" appears to trace back to two Semitic roots,[lower-alpha 1] which coalesce in the form ḥbr, having reflexes in Hebrew and Amorite, with a basic sense of 'unite' and connoting a range of meanings from "colleague" to "friend". In the proper name Hebron, the original sense may have been alliance.[18]

Strongs Number H2275 חֶבְרוֹן chebrôn kheb-rone' From H2267; seat of association; Chebron, a place in Palestine, also the name of two Israelites: - Hebron. Total KJV occurrences: 71

History

Bronze Age

Archaeological excavations reveal traces of strong fortifications dated to the Early Bronze Age, covering some 24–30 dunams centered around Tel Rumeida. The city flourished in the 17th–18th centuries BCE before being destroyed by fire, and was resettled in the late Middle Bronze Age.[19][20] This older Hebron was originally a Canaanite royal city.[21] Abrahamic legend associates the city with the Hittites. It has been conjectured that Hebron might have been the capital of Shuwardata of Gath, an Indo-European (Canaanite) contemporary of Jerusalem's regent, Abdi-Kheba,[22] although the Hebron hills were almost devoid of settlements in the Late Bronze Age.[23] The Abrahamic traditions associated with Hebron are nomadic. This may also reflect a Kenite element, since the nomadic Kenites are said to have long occupied the city,[24] and Heber is the name for a Kenite clan.[25] In the narrative of the later Hebrew conquest, Hebron was one of two centres under Canaanite control. They were ruled by the three sons of Anak (benê/yelîdê hā'ănaq).[26] or may reflect some Kenite and Kenizzite migration from the Negev to Hebron, since terms related to the Kenizzites appear to be close to Hurrian. This suggests that behind the Anakim legend lies some early Hurrian population.[27] In Biblical lore they are represented as descendants of the Nephilim.[28] The Book of Genesis mentions that it was formerly called Kirjath-arba, or "city of four", possibly referring to the four pairs or couples who were buried there, or four tribes, or four quarters,[29] four hills,[30] or a confederated settlement of four families.[31]

The story of Abraham's purchase of the Cave of the Patriarchs from the Hittites constitutes a seminal element in what was to become the Jewish attachment to the land[32] in that it signified the first "real estate" of Israel long before the conquest under Joshua.[33] In settling here, Abraham is described as making his first covenant, an alliance with two local Amorite clans who became his ba’alei brit or masters of the covenant.[34]

Iron Age

Excavations at Tel Rumeida

The Hebron of the Israelites was centered on what is now known as Tel Rumeida, while its ritual centre was located at Elonei Mamre.[35]

Hebrew Bible narrative

Samson removes gates of Gaza (left) and brings them to Mount Hebron (right). Strassburg (1160–1170), Württemberg State Museum in Stuttgart

It is said to have been wrested from the Canaanites by either Joshua, who is said to have wiped out all of its previous inhabitants, "destroying everything that drew breath, as the Lord God of Israel had commanded",[36] or the tribe of Judah as a whole, or specifically Caleb the Judahite.[37] The town itself, with some contiguous pasture land, is then said to have been granted to the Levites of the clan of Kohath, while the fields of the city, as well as its surrounding villages were assigned to Caleb (Joshua 21:3–12; 1 Chronicles 6:54–56),[38] who expels the three giants, Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai, who ruled the city. Later, the biblical narrative has King David called by God to relocate to Hebron and reign from there for some seven years (2 Samuel 2:1–3).[39] It is there that the elders of Israel come to him to make a covenant before Elohim and anoint him king of Israel.[40] It was in Hebron again that Absalom has himself declared king and then raises a revolt against his father David (2 Samuel 15:7–10). It became one of the principal centers of the Tribe of Judah and was classified as one of the six traditional Cities of Refuge.[41]

Archaeology

As is shown by the discovery at Lachish, the second most important Judean city after Jerusalem,[42] of seals with the inscription lmlk Hebron (to the king Hebron),[43] Hebron continued to constitute an important local economic centre, given its strategic position on the crossroads between the Dead Sea to the east, Jerusalem to the north, the Negev and Egypt to the south, and the Shepelah and the coastal plain to the west.[44] Lying along trading routes, it remained administratively and politically dependent on Jerusalem for this period.[45]

Classic antiquity

After the destruction of the First Temple, most of the Jewish inhabitants of Hebron were exiled, and according to the conventional view,[46] some researchers found traces of Edomite presence after the 5th–4th centuries BCE, as the area became Achaemenid province,[47] and, in the wake of Alexander the Great's conquest, Hebron was throughout the Hellenistic period under the influence of Idumea (as the new area inhabited by the Edomites was called during the Persian, Hellenistic and Roman periods), as is attested by inscriptions for that period bearing names with the Edomite God Qōs.[48] Jews also appear to have lived there after the return from the Babylonian exile (Nehemiah 11:25). During the Maccabean revolt, Hebron was burnt and plundered by Judah Maccabee who fought against the Edomites in 167 BCE.[49][50] The city appears to have long resisted Hasmonean dominance, however, and indeed as late as the First Jewish–Roman War was still considered Idumean.[51]

The present day city of Hebron was settled in the valley downhill from Tel Rumeida at the latest by Roman times.[52]

Herod the Great, king of Judea, built the wall which still surrounds the Cave of the Patriarchs. During the First Jewish–Roman War, Hebron was captured and plundered by Simon Bar Giora, a peasantry faction leader, without bloodshed. The "little town" was later laid to waste by Vespasian's officer Sextus Vettulenus Cerialis.[53] Josephus wrote that he "slew all he found there, young and old, and burnt down the town." After the defeat of Simon bar Kokhba in 135 CE, innumerable Jewish captives were sold into slavery at Hebron's Terebinth slave-market.[54][55]

The city was part of the Byzantine Empire in Palaestina Prima province at the Diocese of the East. The Byzantine emperor Justinian I erected a Christian church over the Cave of Machpelah in the 6th century CE, which was later destroyed by the Sassanid general Shahrbaraz in 614 when Khosrau II's armies besieged and took Jerusalem.[56] Jews were not permitted to reside in Hebron under Byzantine rule.[13] The sanctuary itself however was spared by the Persians, in deference to the Jewish population, who were numerous in the Sassanid army.[57]

Muslim conquest and Rashidun caliphate

Hebron was one of the last cities of Palestine to fall to the Islamic invasion in the 7th century, possibly the reason why Hebron is not mentioned in any traditions of the Arab conquest.[58] When the Rashidun Caliphate established its rule over Hebron in 638, the Muslims converted the Byzantine church at the site of Abraham's tomb into a mosque.[13] It became an important station on the caravan trading route from Egypt, and also as a way-station for pilgrims making the yearly hajj from Damascus.[59] After the fall of the city, Jerusalem's conqueror, Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab permitted Jewish people to return and to construct a small synagogue within the Herodian precinct.[60]

Umayyad period

Catholic bishop Arculf, who visited the Holy Land during the Umayyad period, described the city as unfortified and poor. In his writings he also mentioned camel caravans transporting firewood from Hebron to Jerusalem, which implies there was a presence of Arab nomads in the region at that time.[61] Trade greatly expanded, in particular with Bedouins in the Negev (al-Naqab) and the population to the east of the Dead Sea (Baḥr Lūṭ). According to Anton Kisa, Jews from Hebron (and Tyre) founded the Venetian glass industry in the 9th century.[62]

Fatimid and Seljuk periods

Islam did not view the town as significant before the 10th century, it being almost absent in Muslim literature of the period.[63] Jerusalemite geographer al-Muqaddasi, writing in 985 described the town as follows:

Habra (Hebron) is the village of Abraham al-Khalil (the Friend of God)...Within it is a strong fortress...being of enormous squared stones. In the middle of this stands a dome of stone, built in Islamic times, over the sepulchre of Abraham. The tomb of Isaac lies forward, in the main building of the mosque, the tomb of Jacob to the rear; facing each prophet lies his wife. The enclosure has been converted into a mosque, and built around it are rest houses for the pilgrims, so that they adjoin the main edifice on all sides. A small water conduit has been conducted to them. All the countryside around this town for about half a stage has villages in every direction, with vineyards and grounds producing grapes and apples called Jabal Nahra...being fruit of unsurpassed excellence...Much of this fruit is dried, and sent to Egypt. In Hebron is a public guest house continuously open, with a cook, a baker and servants in regular attendance. These offer a dish of lentils and olive oil to every poor person who arrives, and it is set before the rich, too, should they wish to partake. Most men express the opinion this is a continuation of the guest house of Abraham, however, it is, in fact from the bequest of the sahaba (companion) of the prophet Muhammad] Tamim-al Dari and others.... The Amir of Khurasan...has assigned to this charity one thousand dirhams yearly, ...al-Shar al-Adil bestowed on it a substantial bequest. At present time I do not know in all the realm of al-Islam any house of hospitality and charity more excellent than this one.[64]

The custom, known as the 'table of Abraham' (simāt al-khalil), was similar to the one established by the Fatimids, and in Hebron's version, it found its most famous expression. The Persian traveller Nasir-i-Khusraw who visited Hebron in 1047 records in his Safarnama that

... this Sanctuary has belonging to it very many villages that provide revenues for pious purposes. At one of these villages is a spring, where water flows out from under a stone, but in no great abundance; and it is conducted by a channel, cut in the ground, to a place outside the town (of Hebron), where they have constructed a covered tank for collecting the water...The Sanctuary (Mashad), stands on the southern border of the town....it is enclosed by four walls. The Mihrab (or niche) and the Maksurah (or enclosed space for Friday prayers) stand in the width of the building (at the south end). In the Maksurah are many fine Mihrabs.[65] He further recorded that "They grow at Hebron for the most part barley, wheat being rare, but olives are in abundance. The [visitors] are given bread and olives. There are very many mills here, worked by oxen and mules, that all day long grind the flour, and further, there are working girls who, during the whole day are baking bread. The loaves are [about three pounds] and to every persons who arrives they give daily a loaf of bread, and a dish of lentils cooked in olive-oil, also some raisins....there are some days when as many as five hundred pilgrims arrive, to each of whom this hospitality is offered."[66][67]

Geniza documents from this period refer only to "the graves of the patriarchs" and reveal there was an organised Jewish community in Hebron who had a synagogue near the tomb, and were occupied with accommodating Jewish pilgrims and merchants. During the Seljuk period, the community was headed by Saadia b. Abraham b. Nathan, who was known as the "haver of the graves of the patriarchs."[68]

Crusader/Ayyubid period

The Caliphate lasted in the area until 1099, when the Christian Crusader Godfrey de Bouillon took Hebron and renamed it "Castellion Saint Abraham".[69] It was designated capital of the southern district of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem[70] and given, in turn,[71] as the fief of Saint Abraham, to Geldemar Carpinel, the bishop Gerard of Avesnes,[72] Hugh of Rebecques, Walter Mohamet and Baldwin of Saint Abraham. As a Frankish garrison of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, its defence was precarious being 'little more than an island in a Moslem ocean'.[73] The Crusaders converted the mosque and the synagogue into a church. In 1106, an Egyptian campaign thrust into southern Palestine and almost succeeded the following year in wresting Hebron back from the Crusaders under Baldwin I of Jerusalem, who personally led the counter-charge to beat the Muslim forces off. In the year 1113 during the reign of Baldwin II of Jerusalem, according to Ali of Herat (writing in 1173), a certain part over the cave of Abraham had given way, and "a number of Franks had made their entrance therein". And they discovered "(the bodies) of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob", "their shrouds having fallen to pieces, lying propped up against a wall...Then the King, after providing new shrouds, caused the place to be closed once more". Similar information is given in Ibn at Athir's Chronicle under the year 1119; "In this year was opened the tomb of Abraham, and those of his two sons Isaac and Jacob ...Many people saw the Patriarch. Their limbs had nowise been disturbed, and beside them were placed lamps of gold and of silver."[74] The Damascene nobleman and historian Ibn al-Qalanisi in his chronicle also alludes at this time to the discovery of relics purported to be those of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, a discovery which excited eager curiosity among all three communities in Palestine, Muslim, Jewish, and Christian.[75][76] Towards the end of the period of Crusader rule, in 1166 Maimonides visited Hebron and wrote,

On Sunday, 9 Marheshvan (17 October), I left Jerusalem for Hebron to kiss the tombs of my ancestors in the Cave. On that day, I stood in the cave and prayed, praise be to God, (in gratitude) for everything.[77]

A royal domain, Hebron was handed over to Philip of Milly in 1161 and joined with the Seigneurie of Transjordan. A bishop was appointed to Hebron in 1168 and the new cathedral church of St Abraham was built in the southern part of the Haram.[78] In 1167, the episcopal see of Hebron was created along with that of Kerak and Sebastia (the tomb of John the Baptist).[79]

In 1170, Benjamin of Tudela visited the city, which he called by its Frankish name, St. Abram de Bron. He reported:

Here there is the great church called St. Abram, and this was a Jewish place of worship at the time of the Mohammedan rule, but the Gentiles have erected there six tombs, respectively called those of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah. The custodians tell the pilgrims that these are the tombs of the Patriarchs, for which information the pilgrims give them money. If a Jew comes, however, and gives a special reward, the custodian of the cave opens unto him a gate of iron, which was constructed by our forefathers, and then he is able to descend below by means of steps, holding a lighted candle in his hand. He then reaches a cave, in which nothing is to be found, and a cave beyond, which is likewise empty, but when he reaches the third cave behold there are six sepulchres, those of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, respectively facing those of Sarah, Rebekah and Leah.[80]

The Kurdish Muslim Saladin retook Hebron in 1187 – again with Jewish assistance according to one late tradition, in exchange for a letter of security allowing them to return to the city and build a synagogue there.[81] The name of the city was changed back to Al-Khalil. A Kurdish quarter still existed in the town during the early period of Ottoman rule.[82] Richard the Lionheart retook the city soon after. Richard of Cornwall, brought from England to settle the dangerous feuding between Templars and Hospitallers, whose rivalry imperiled the treaty guaranteeing regional stability stipulated with the Egyptian Sultan As-Salih Ayyub, managed to impose peace on the area. But soon after his departure, feuding broke out and in 1241 the Templars mounted a damaging raid on what was, by now, Muslim Hebron, in violation of agreements.[83]

In 1244, the Khwarazmians destroyed the town, but left the sanctuary untouched.[57]

Mamluk period

In 1260, after Mamluk Sultan Baibars defeated the Mongol army, the minarets were built onto the sanctuary. Six years later, while on pilgrimage to Hebron, Baibars promulgated an edict forbidding Christians and Jews from entering the sanctuary,[84] and the climate became less tolerant of Jews and Christians than it had been under the prior Ayyubid rule. The edict for the exclusion of Christians and Jews was not strictly enforced until the middle of the 14th-century and by 1490, not even Muslims were permitted to enter the caverns.[85]

The mill at Artas was built in 1307, and the profits from its income were dedicated to the hospital in Hebron.[86] Between 1318–20, the Na'ib of Gaza and much of coastal and interior Palestine ordered the construction of Jawli Mosque to enlarge the prayer space for worshipers at the Ibrahimi Mosque.[87]

Hebron was visited by some important rabbis over the next two centuries, among them Nachmanides (1270) and Ishtori HaParchi (1322) who noted the old Jewish cemetery there. Sunni imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350) was penalised by the religious authorities in Damascus for refusing to recognise Hebron as a Muslim pilgrimage site, a view also held by his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah.[88]

The Italian traveller, Meshulam of Volterra (1481) found not more that twenty Jewish families living in Hebron.[89][90] and recounted how the Jewish women of Hebron would disguise themselves with a veil in order to pass as Muslim women and enter the Cave of the Patriarchs without being recognized as Jews.[91]

Minute descriptions of Hebron were recorded in Stephen von Gumpenberg's Journal (1449), by Felix Fabri (1483) and by Mejr ed-Din[92] It was in this period, also, that the Mamluk Sultan Qa'it Bay revived the old custom of the Hebron "table of Abraham," and exported it as a model for his own madrasa in Medina.[93] This became an immense charitable establishment near the Haram, distributing daily some 1,200 loaves of bread to travellers of all faiths.[94] The Italian rabbi Obadiah ben Abraham Bartenura wrote around 1490:

I was in the Cave of Machpelah, over which the mosque has been built; and the Arabs hold the place in high honour. All the Kings of the Arabs come here to repeat their prayers, but neither a Jew nor an Arab may enter the Cave itself, where the real graves of the Patriarchs are; the Arabs remain above, and let down burning torches into it through a window, for they keep a light always burning there. . Bread and lentil, or some other kind of pulse (seeds of peas or beans), is distributed (by the Muslims) to the poor every day without distinction of faith, and this is done in honour of Abraham.[95]

Early Ottoman period

The expansion of the Ottoman Empire along the southern Mediterranean coast under sultan Selim I coincided with the establishment of Inquisition commissions by the Catholic Monarchs in Spain in 1478, which ended centuries of the Iberian convivencia (coexistence). The ensuing expulsions of the Jews drove many Sephardi Jews into the Ottoman provinces, and a slow influx of Jews to the Holy Land took place, with some notable Sephardi kabbalists settling in Hebron.[96][97] Over the following two centuries, there was a significant migration of Bedouin tribal groups from the Arabian Peninsula into Palestine. Many settled in three separate villages in the Wādī al-Khalīl, and their descendants later formed the majority of Hebron.[98]

The Jewish community fluctuated between 8–10 families throughout the 16th century, and suffered from severe financial straits in the first half of the century.[99] In 1540, renowned kabbalist Malkiel Ashkenazi bought a courtyard from the small Karaite community, in which he established the Sephardic Abraham Avinu Synagogue.[100] In 1659, Abraham Pereyra of Amsterdam founded the Hesed Le'Abraham yeshiva in Hebron, which attracted many students.[101] In the early 18th century, the Jewish community suffered from heavy debts, almost quadrupling from 1717–1729,[102] and were "almost crushed" from the extortion practiced by the Turkish pashas. In 1773 or 1775, a substantial amount of money was extorted from the Jewish community, who paid up to avert a threatened catastrophe, after a false allegation was made accusing them of having murdered the son of a local sheikh and throwing his body into a cesspit.[citation needed]> Emissaries from the community were frequently sent overseas to solicit funds.[103][104]

During the Ottoman period, the dilapidated state of the patriarchs' tombs was restored to a semblance of sumptuous dignity.[105] Ali Bey who, under Muslim disguise, was one of the few Westerners to gain access, reported in 1807 that,

all the sepulchres of the patriarchs are covered with rich carpets of green silk, magnificently embroidered with gold; those of the wives are red, embroidered in like manner. The sultans of Constantinople furnish these carpets, which are renewed from time to time. Ali Bey counted nine, one over the other, upon the sepulchre of Abraham.[106]

Hebron also became known throughout the Arab world for its glass production, abetted by Bedouin trade networks which brought up minerals from the Dead Sea, and the industry is mentioned in the books of 19th century Western travellers to Palestine. For example, Ulrich Jasper Seetzen noted during his travels in Palestine in 1808–09 that 150 persons were employed in the glass industry in Hebron,[107] based on 26 kilns.[108] In 1833, a report on the town appearing in a weekly paper printed by the London-based Religious Tract Society wrote that Hebron's population had 400 Arab families, had numerous well-provisioned shops and that there was a manufactory of glass lamps, which were exported to Egypt.[109] Early 19th-century travellers also noticed Hebron's flourishing agriculture. Apart from glassware, it was a major exporter of dibse, grape sugar,[110] from the famous Dabookeh grapestock characteristic of Hebron.[111]

Northern Hebron in the mid-19th century (1850s)

An Arab peasants' revolt broke out in April 1834 when Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt announced he would recruit troops from the local Muslim population.[112] Hebron, headed by its nazir Abd ar-Rahman Amr, declined to supply its quota of conscripts for the army and suffered badly from the Egyptian campaign to crush the uprising. The town was invested and, when its defences fell on 4 August, it was sacked by Ibrahim Pasha's army.[113][114][115] An estimated 500 Muslims from Hebron were killed in the attack and some 750 were conscripted. 120 youths were abducted and put at the disposal of Egyptian army officers. Most of the Muslim population managed to flee beforehand to the hills. Many Jews fled to Jerusalem, but during the general pillage of the town at least five were killed.[116] In 1838, the total population was estimated at 10,000.[114] When the government of Ibrahim Pasha fell in 1841, the local clan leader Abd ar-Rahman Amr once again resumed the reins of power as the Sheik of Hebron. Due to his extortionate demands for cash from the local population, most of the Jewish population fled to Jerusalem.[117] In 1846, the Ottoman Governor-in-chief of Jerusalem (serasker), Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha, waged a campaign to subdue rebellious sheiks in the Hebron area, and while doing so, allowed his troops to sack the town. Though it was widely rumoured that he secretly protected Abd ar-Rahman,[118] the latter was deported together with other local leaders (such as Muslih al-'Azza of Bayt Jibrin), but he managed to return to the area in 1848.[119]

Late Ottoman period

A display of Hebron glass

By 1850, the Jewish population consisted of 45–60 Sephardic families, some 40 born in the town, and a 30-year-old Ashkenazic community of 50 families, mainly Polish and Russian,[120][121] the Lubavitch Hasidic movement having established a community in 1823.[122] The ascendency of Ibrahim Pasha devastated for a time the local glass industry for, aside from the loss of life, his plan to build a Mediterranean fleet led to severe logging in Hebron's forests, and firewood for the kilns grew rarer. At the same time, Egypt began importing cheap European glass, the rerouting of the hajj from Damascus through Transjordan eliminated Hebron as a staging point, and the Suez canal (1869) dispensed with caravan trade. The consequence was a steady decline in the local economy.[123]

At this time, the town was divided into four quarters: the Ancient Quarter (Harat al-Kadim) near the Cave of Machpelah; to its south, the Quarter of the Silk Merchant (Harat al-Kazaz), inhabited by Jews; the Mamluk-era Sheikh's Quarter (Harat ash Sheikh) to the north-west;and further north, the Dense Quarter (Harat al-Harbah).[124][125] In 1855, the newly appointed Ottoman pasha ("governor") of the sanjak ("district") of Jerusalem, Kamil Pasha, attempted to subdue the rebellion in the Hebron region. Kamil and his army marched towards Hebron in July 1855, with representatives from the English, French and other Western consulates as witnesses. After crushing all opposition, Kamil appointed Salama Amr, the brother and strong rival of Abd al Rachman, as nazir of the Hebron region. After this relative quiet reigned in the town for the next 4 years.[126][127] Hungarian Jews of the Karlin Hasidic court settled in another part of the city in 1866.[128] According to Nadav Shragai Arab-Jewish relations were good, and Alter Rivlin, who spoke Arabic and Syrian-Aramaic, was appointed Jewish representative to the city council.[128] Hebron suffered from a severe drought during 1869–71 and food sold for ten times the normal value.[129] From 1874 the Hebron district as part of the Sanjak of Jerusalem was administered directly from Istanbul.[130] By 1874, during C.R. Conder's visit to Hebron under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration Fund, the city's Jewish community had swollen to about 600, compared to 17,000 Muslims.[131] The Jews were confined to the Quarter of the Corner Gate.[131]

Late in the 19th century the production of Hebron glass declined due to competition from imported European glass-ware, however, the products of Hebron continued to be sold, particularly among the poorer populace and travelling Jewish traders from the city.[132] At the World Fair of 1873 in Vienna, Hebron was represented with glass ornaments. A report from the French consul in 1886 suggests that glass-making remained an important source of income for Hebron, with four factories earning 60,000 francs yearly.[133] While the economy of other cities in Palestine was based on solely on trade, Hebron was the only city in Palestine that combined agriculture, livestock herding and trade, including the manufacture of glassware and processing of hides. This was because the most fertile lands were situated within the city limits.[134] The city, nevertheless, was considered unproductive and had a reputation "being an asylum for the poor and the spiritual."[135] Differing in architectural style from Nablus, whose wealthy merchants built handsome houses, Hebron's main characteristic was its semi-urban, semi-peasant dwellings.[134]

Hebron was 'deeply Bedouin and Islamic',[136] and 'bleakly conservative' in its religious outlook,[137] with a strong tradition of hostility to Jews.[138][139] It had a reputation for religious zeal in jealously protecting its sites from Jews and Christians, but both the Jewish and Christian communities were apparently well integrated into the town's economic life.[98] As a result of its commercial decline, tax revenues diminished significantly, and the Ottoman government, avoiding meddling in complex local politics, left Hebron relatively undisturbed, to become 'one of the most autonomous regions in late Ottoman Palestine.'.[140]

The Jewish community was under French protection until 1914. The Jewish presence itself was divided between the traditional Sephardi community, Orthodox and anti-Zionist,[141] whose members spoke Arabic and adopted Arab dress, and the more recent influx of Ashkenazis. They prayed in different synagogues, sent their children to different schools, lived in different quarters and did not intermarry.[142]

British Mandate

British loyalty meeting in Hebron, July 1940

The British occupied Hebron on 8 December 1917; governance transited to a mandate in 1920. Most of Hebron was owned by old Islamic charitable endowments (waqfs), with about 60% of all the land in and around Hebron belonging to the Tamīm al-Dārī waqf.[143] In 1922, its population stood at 17,000.[144] During the 1920s, Abd al-Ḥayy al-Khaṭīb was appointed Mufti of Hebron. Before his appointment, he had been a staunch opponent of Haj Amin, supported the Muslim National Associations and had good contacts with the Zionists.[145] Later, al-Khaṭīb became one of the few loyal followers of Haj Amin in Hebron.[146] During the late Ottoman period, a new ruling elite had emerged in Palestine. They later formed the core of the growing Arab nationalist movement in the early 20th century. During the Mandate period, delegates from Hebron constituted only 1 per cent of the political leadership.[147] The Palestinian Arab decision to boycott the 1923 elections for a Legislative Council was made at the fifth Palestinian Congress, after it was reported by Murshid Shahin (an Arab pro-Zionist activist) that there was intense resistance in Hebron to the elections.[148] Almost no house in Hebron remained undamaged when an earthquake struck Palestine on July 11, 1927.[149]

The Cave of the Patriarchs continued to remain officially closed to non-Muslims, and reports that entry to the site had been relaxed in 1928 were denied by the Supreme Muslim Council.[150]

At this time following attempts by the Lithuanian government to draft yeshiva students into the army, the Lithuanian Hebron Yeshiva (Knesses Yisroel) relocated to Hebron, after consultations between Rabbi Nosson Tzvi Finkel, Yechezkel Sarna and Moshe Mordechai Epstein.[151][152] and by 1929 had attracted some 265 students from Europe and the United States.[153] The majority of the Jewish population lived on the outskirts of Hebron along the roads to Be'ersheba and Jerusalem, renting homes owned by Arabs, a number of which were built for the express purpose of housing Jewish tenants, with a few dozen within the city around the synagogues.[154] During the 1929 Hebron massacre, Arab rioters slaughtered some 64 to 67 Jewish men, women and children[155][156] and wounded 60, and Jewish homes and synagogues were ransacked; 435 Jews survived by virtue of the shelter and assistance offered them by their Arab neighbours, who hid them.[157] Some Hebron Arabs, including Ahmad Rashid al-Hirbawi, president of Hebron chamber of commerce, supported the return of Jews after the massacre.[158] Two years later, 35 families moved back into the ruins of the Jewish quarter, but on the eve of the Palestinian Arab revolt (April 23, 1936) the British Government decided to move the Jewish community out of Hebron as a precautionary measure to secure its safety. The sole exception was the 8th generation Hebronite Ya'akov ben Shalom Ezra, who processed dairy products in the city, blended in well with its social landscape and resided there under the protection of friends. In November 1947, in anticipation of the UN partition vote, the Ezra family closed its shop and left the city.[159] Yossi Ezra has since tried to regain his family's property through the Israeli courts.[160]

Jordanian period

At the beginning of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, Egypt took control of Hebron. Between May and October, Egypt and Jordan tussled for dominance in Hebron and its environs. Both countries appointed military governors in the town, hoping to gain recognition from Hebron officials. The Egyptians managed to persuade the pro-Jordanian mayor to support their rule, at least superficially, but local opinion turned against them when they imposed taxes. Villagers surrounding Hebron resisted and skirmishes broke out in which some were killed.[161] By late 1948, part of the Egyptian forces from Bethlehem to Hebron had been cut off from their lines of supply and Glubb Pasha sent 350 Arab Legionnaires and an armoured car unit to Hebron to reinforce them there. When the Armistice was signed, the city thus fell under Jordanian military control. The armistice agreement between Israel with Jordan intended to allow Israeli Jewish pilgrims to visit Hebron, but, as Jews of all nationalities were forbidden by Jordan into the country, this did not occur.[162][163]

In December 1948, the Jericho Conference was convened to decide the future of the West Bank which was held by Jordan. Hebron notables, headed by mayor Muhamad 'Ali al-Ja'bari, voted in favour of becoming part of Jordan and to recognise Abdullah I of Jordan as their king. The subsequent unilateral annexation benefited the Arabs of Hebron, who during the 1950s, played a significant role in the economic development of Jordan.[164][165]

Although a significant number of people relocated to Jerusalem from Hebron during the Jordanian period,[166] Hebron itself saw a considerable increase in population with 35,000 settling in the town.[167] During this period, signs of the previous Jewish presence in Hebron were removed.[168]

Year Muslims Christians Jews Total Notes and sources
1538 749 h 7 h 20 h 776 h (h = households), Cohen & Lewis[169]
1774 300 Azulai[170]
1817 500 Israel Foreign Ministry[171]
1820 1,000 William Turner[172]
1824 60 h (40 h Sephardim, 20 h Ashkenazim), The Missionary Herald[173]
1832 400 h 100 h 500 h (h = households), Augustin Calmet, Charles Taylor, Edward Robinson[174]
1837 423 Montefiore census
1838 c.6-7,000 "few" 700 7-8,000 William McClure Thomson[175]
1839 1295 f 1 f 241 (f = families), David Roberts[176][177]
1840 700–800 James A. Huie[178]
1851 11,000 450 Official register[179]
1851 400 Clorinda Minor[180]
1866 497 Montefiore census
1871/2 2,800 h 200 h 3,000 h Ottoman records for the Syrian provincial sālnāme for these years[181]
1875 8,000-10,000 500 Albert Socin[182]
1875 17,000 600 Hebron Kaymakam[183]
1881 1,000-1,200 PEF Survey of Palestine[184]
1881 800 5,000 The Friend[185]
1890 1,490 Jewish Encyclopedia
1895 1,400 [186]
1906 1,100 14,000 (690 Sephardim, 410 Ashkenazim), Jewish Encyclopedia
1922 16,074 73 430 16,577 1922 census of Palestine[187]
1929 700 Israel Foreign Ministry[171]
1930 0 Israel Foreign Ministry[171]
1931 17,277 109 134 17,532 1931 census of Palestine[188]
1945 24,400 150 0 24,560 Village Statistics, 1945[189]
1961 37,868 Jordanian census[190][191]
1967 38,073 136 38,348 Israeli census[192]
1997 n/a n/a 530[171] 119,093 Palestinian census[193]
2007 n/a n/a 500[194] 163,146 Palestinian census[195]

Historic sites

The Old City of Hebron was a declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 7 July 2017,[196] despite opposition from Israeli officials who objected to it not being called Israeli or Jewish.[197]

The most famous historic site in Hebron is the Cave of the Patriarchs. The Herodian era structure is said to enclose the tombs of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs. The Isaac Hall now serves as the Ibrahimi mosque, while the Abraham and Jacob Hall serve as a synagogue. The tombs of other biblical figures (Abner ben Ner, Otniel ben Kenaz, Ruth and Jesse) are also located in the city.

The Oak of Sibta (Oak of Abraham) is an ancient tree which, in non-Jewish tradition,[198] is said to mark the place where Abraham pitched his tent. The Russian Orthodox Church owns the site and the nearby Abraham's Oak Holy Trinity Monastery, consecrated in 1925.

The Russian Orthodox monastery, Hebron

Hebron is one of the few cities to have preserved its Mamluk architecture. Many structures were built during the period, especially Sufi zawiyas.[199] Mosques from the era include the Sheikh Ali al-Bakka and Al-Jawali mosque. The early Ottoman Abraham Avinu Synagogue in the city's historic Jewish quarter was built in 1540 and restored in 1738.

Religious traditions

Some Jewish traditions regarding Adam place him in Hebron after his expulsion from Eden. Another has Cain kill Abel there. A third has Adam and Eve buried in the cave of Machpelah. A Jewish-Christian tradition had it that Adam was formed from the red clay of the field of Damascus, near Hebron.[200][201] A tradition arose in medieval Jewish texts that the Cave of the Patriarchs itself was the very entrance to the Garden of Eden.[202] During the Middle Ages, pilgrims and the inhabitants of Hebron would eat the red earth as a charm against misfortune.[203][204] Others report that the soil was harvested for export as a precious medicinal spice in Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopia and India and that the earth refilled after every digging.[200] Legend also tells that Noah planted his vineyard on Mount Hebron.[205] In medieval Christian tradition, Hebron was one of the three cities where Elizabeth was said to live, the legend implying that it might have been the birthplace of John the Baptist.[206][207]

One Islamic tradition has it that Muhammad alighted in Hebron during his night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and the mosque in the city is said to conserve one of his shoes.[208] Another tradition states that Muhammad arranged for Hebron and its surrounding villages to become part of Tamim al-Dari's domain; this was implemented during Umar's reign as caliph. According to the arrangement, al-Dari and his descendants were only permitted to tax the residents for their land and the waqf of the Ibrahimi Mosque was entrusted to them.[209]

The simat al-Khalil or "Table of Abraham" is attested to in the writings of the 11th century Persian traveller Nasir-i Khusraw. According to the account, this early Islamic food distribution center — which predates the Ottoman imarets — gave all visitors to Hebron a loaf of bread, a bowl of lentils in olive oil, and some raisins.[210]

According to Tamara Neuman, settlement by a community of Jewish religious fundamentalists has brought about three major changes by (a)redesigning a Palestinian area in terms of biblical imagery and origins: (b) remaking over these revamped religious sites to endow them with an innovative centrality to Jewish worship, that, she argues, effectively erases the diasporic thrust of Jewish tradition; and (c) writing out the overlapping aspects of Judaism, Christianity and Islam in such a way that the possibility of accommodation between the three intertwined traditions is eradicated, while the presence of Palestinians themselves is erased by violent methods.[211]

See also

Notes

  1. Y.L. Arbeitman,The Hittite is Thy Mother: An Anatolian Approach to Genesis 23, (1981) pp.889-1026, argues that an Indo-European root *ar-, with the same meaning as the semitic root ḥbr, namely 'to join' may underlie part of the earlier name Kiryat-Arba [17]

Citations

  1. "Palestinian terrorist in killing of 6 Jews elected Hebron mayor". Times of Israel. 14 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017.
  2. Hebron City Profile – ARIJ
  3. 1 2 Hebron page 80, Hebron is 45 square kilometres (17 sq mi) in area and has a population of 250,000, according to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics for the year 2007. The figure given here refers to the population of the city of Hebron itself.
  4. The book: The Israel/Palestine Question; By Ed. Pappe; p.33; "city of khalil al-Rahman"
  5. The book: Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index; By: Josef W. Meri; p.318; "Hebron(al-Khalil al-Rahman"
  6. Kamrava 2010, p. 236.
  7. Alimi 2013, p. 178.
  8. Rothrock 2011, p. 100.
  9. Beilin 2004, p. 59.
  10. Neuman 2018, pp. 2-3
  11. Neuman 2018, p. 3
  12. Neuman 2018, p. 3
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 Scharfstein 1994, p. 124.
  14. Zacharia 2010.
  15. Hasasneh 2005.
  16. Flusfeder 1997
  17. Niesiolowski-Spano 2011, p. 124.
  18. Cazelles 1981, p. 195 compares Amorite ḫibrum. Two roots are in play, ḥbr/ḫbr. The root has magical overtones, and develops pejorative connotations in late Biblical usage.
  19. Negev & Gibson 2001, pp. 225–5.
  20. Na'aman 2005, p. 180
  21. Towner 2001, pp. 144–45: "[T]he city was a Canaanite royal center long before it became Israelite".
  22. Albright 2000, p. 110
  23. Na'aman 2005, pp. 77–78
  24. Smith 1903, p. 200.
  25. Kraeling 1925, p. 179.
  26. Na'aman 2005, p. 361 These non-Semitic names perhaps echo either a tradition of a group of elite professional troops (Philistines, Hittites), formed in Canaan whose ascendancy was overthrown by the West-Semitic clan of Caleb. They would have migrated from the Negev,
  27. Joseph Blenkinsopp (1972). Gibeon and Israel. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-521-08368-0.
  28. Joshua 10:3, 5, 3–39; 12:10, 13. Na'aman 2005, p. 177 doubts this tradition. "The book of Joshua is not a reliable source for either a historical or a territorial discussion of the Late Bronze Age, and its evidence must be disregarded".
  29. Mulder 2004, p. 165
  30. Alter 1996, p. 108.
  31. Hamilton 1995, p. 126.
  32. Finkelstein & Silberman 2001, p. 45.
  33. Lied 2008, pp. 154–62, 162
  34. Elazar 1998, p. 128: (Genesis.ch. 23)
  35. Magen 2007, p. 185.
  36. Glick 1994, p. 46, citing Joshua 10:36–42 and the influence this has had on certain settlers in the West Bank.
  37. Gottwald 1999, p. 153: "certain conquests claimed for Joshua are elsewhere attributed to single tribes or clans, for example, in the case of Hebron (in Joshua 10:36–37, Hebron's capture is attributed to Joshua; in Judges 1:10 to Judah; in Judges 1:20 and Joshua 14:13–14; 15:13–14" to Caleb.
  38. Bratcher & Newman 1983, p. 262.
  39. Schafer-Lichtenberger (1 September 1996). "Sociological views". In Volkmar Fritz (ed.). The Origins of the Ancient Israelite States. Philip R. Davies. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-0-567-60296-1.
  40. Gottwald 1999, p. 173, citing 2 Samuel, 5:3.
  41. Japhet 1993, p. 148. See Joshua 20, 1–7.
  42. Hasson 2016
  43. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sharon 2007 104
  44. Jericke 2003, p. 17
  45. Jericke 2003, pp. 26ff., 31.
  46. Carter 1999, pp. 96–99 Carter challenges this view on the grounds that it has no archeological support.
  47. Lemaire 2006, p. 419
  48. Jericke 2003, p. 19.
  49. Josephus 1860, p. 334 Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Bk. 12, ch.8, para.6.
  50. Duke 2010, pp. 93–94 is sceptical.'This should be considered a raid on Hebron instead of a conquest based on subsequent events in the book of I Maccabees.'
  51. Duke 2010, p. 94
  52. Jericke 2003, p. 17:'Spätestens in römischer Zeit ist die Ansiedlung im Tal beim heutigen Stadtzentrum zu finden'.
  53. Josephus 1860, p. 701 Josephus, The Jewish War, Bk 4, ch. 9, p. 9.
  54. Schürer, Millar & Vermes 1973, p. 553 n.178 citing Jerome, in Zachariam 11:5; in Hieremiam 6:18; Chronicon paschale.
  55. Hezser 2002, p. 96.
  56. Norwich 1999, p. 285
  57. 57.0 57.1 Salaville 1910, p. 185
  58. Gil 1997, pp. 56–57 cites the late testimony of two monks, Eudes and Arnoul CE 1119–1120:'When they (the Muslims) came to Hebron they were amazed to see the strong and handsome structures of the walls and they could not find an opening through which to enter, then the Jews happened to come, who lived in the area under the former rule of the Greeks (that is the Byzantines), and they said to the Muslims: give us (a letter of security) that we may continue to live (in our places) under your rule (literally-amongst you) and permit us to build a synagogue in front of the entrance (to the city). If you will do this, we shall show you where you can break in. And it was so'.
  59. Büssow 2011, p. 195
  60. Hiro 1999, p. 166.
  61. Frenkel, 2011, p.28–29
  62. Forbes 1965, p. 155, citing Anton Kisa et al.,Das Glas im Altertum, 1908.
  63. Gil 1997, pp. 205
  64. Al-Muqaddasi 2001, pp. 156–57. For an older translation see Le Strange 1890, pp. 30910
  65. Le Strange 1890, pp. 31011
  66. Le Strange 1890, p. 315
  67. Singer 2002, p. 148.
  68. Gil 1997, p. 206
  69. Robinson & Smith 1856, p. 78:'The Castle of St. Abraham' was the generic Crusader name for Hebron.'
  70. Israel tourguide, Avraham Lewensohn, 1979. p. 222.
  71. Murray 2000, p. 107
  72. Runciman 1965a, p. 307Runciman also (pp. 307–08) notes that Gerard of Avesnes was a knight from Hainault held hostage at Arsuf, north of Jaffa, who had been wounded by Godfrey's own forces during the siege of the port, and later returned by the Muslims to Godfrey as a token of good will.
  73. Runciman 1965b, p. 4
  74. Le Strange 1890, pp. 31718
  75. Kohler 1896, pp. 447ff.
  76. Runciman 1965b, p. 319.
  77. Kraemer 2001, p. 422.
  78. Boas 1999, p. 52.
  79. Richard 1999, p. 112.
  80. Benjamin 1907, p. 25.
  81. Gil 1997, p. 207. Note to editors. This account, always in Moshe Gil, refers to two distinct events, the Arab conquest from Byzantium, and the Kurdish-Arab conquest from Crusaders. In both the manuscript is a monkish chronicle, and the words used, and event described is identical. We may have a secondary source confusion here.
  82. Sharon 2003, p. 297.
  83. Runciman 1965c, p. 219
  84. Micheau 2006, p. 402
  85. Murphy-O'Connor 1998, p. 274.
  86. Sharon 1997, pp. 117–18.
  87. Dandis, Wala. History of Hebron. 2011-11-07. Retrieved on 2012-03-02.
  88. Meri 2004, pp. 362–63.
  89. Kosover 1966, p. 5.
  90. David 2010, p. 24.
  91. Lamdan 2000, p. 102.
  92. Robinson & Smith 1856, pp. 440–42, n.1.
  93. Singer 2002, p. 148
  94. Robinson & Smith 1856, p. 458.
  95. Berger 2012, p. 246..
  96. Idel 2005, p. 131
  97. Green 2007, pp. xv–xix.
  98. 98.0 98.1 Büssow 2011, p. 195.
  99. David 2010, p. 24. Tahrir registers document 20 households in 1538/9, 8 in 1553/4, 11 in 1562 and 1596/7. Gil however suggests the tahrir records of the Jewish population may be understated.
  100. Schwarz 1850, p. 397
  101. Perera 1996, p. 104.
  102. Barnay 1992, pp. 89–90 gives the figures of 12,000 quadrupling to 46,000 Kuruş.
  103. Marcus 1996, p. 85. In 1770, they received financial assistance from North American Jews which amounted in excess of £100.
  104. Van Luit 2009, p. 42. In 1803, the rabbis and elders of the Jewish community were imprisoned after failing to pay their debts. In 1807 the community did however succeed in purchasing a 5-dunam (5,000 m²) plot where Hebron's wholesale market stands today.
  105. Conder 1830, p. 198.
  106. Conder 1830, p. 198. The source was a manuscript, The Travels of Ali Bey, vol. ii, pp. 232–33.
  107. Schölch 1993, p. 161.
  108. Büssow 2011, p. 198
  109. WV 1833, p. 436.
  110. Shaw 1808, p. 144
  111. Finn 1868, p. 39.
  112. Krämer 2011, p. 68
  113. Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, pp. 6–11, esp. p. 8
  114. 114.0 114.1 Robinson & Smith 1856, p. 88.
  115. Schwarz 1850, p. 403.
  116. Schwarz 1850, pp. 398–99.
  117. Schwarz 1850, pp. 398–400
  118. Finn 1878, pp. 287ff.
  119. Schölch 1993, pp. 234–35.
  120. Schwarz 1850, p. 401
  121. Wilson 1847, pp. 355–381, 372:The rabbi of the Ashkenazi community, who said they numbered 60 mainly Polish and Russian emigrants, professed no knowledge of the Sephardim in Hebron (p.377).
  122. Sicker 1999, p. 6.
  123. Büssow 2011, pp. 198–99.
  124. Wilson 1847, p. 379.
  125. Wilson 1881, p. 195 mentions a different set of names, the Quarter of the Cloister Gate (Harat Bab ez Zawiyeh);the Quarter of the Sanctuary (Haret el Haram), to the south-east.
  126. Schölch 1993, pp. 236–37.
  127. Finn 1878, pp. 305–308.
  128. 128.0 128.1 Shragai 2008.
  129. History of the Jews of the Netherlands Antilles, Volume 2, Isaac Samuel Emmanuel, Suzanne A. Emmanuel, American Jewish Archives, 1970. p. 754: "Between 1869 and 1871 Hebron was plagued with a severe drought. Food was so scarce that the little available sold for ten times the normal value. Although the rains came in 1871, there was no easing of the famine, for the farmers had no seed to sow. The [Jewish] community was obliged to borrow money from non-Jews at exorbitant interest rates in order to buy wheat for their fold. Their leaders finally decided to send their eminent Chief Rabbi Eliau [Soliman] Mani to Egypt to obtain relief."
  130. Khalidi 1998, p. 218.
  131. 131.0 131.1 Conder 1879, p. 79
  132. Schölch 1993, pp. 161–62 quoting David Delpuget Les Juifs d´Alexandrie, de Jaffa et de Jérusalem en 1865, Bordeaux, 1866, p. 26.
  133. Schölch 1993, pp. 161–62.
  134. 134.0 134.1 Tarākī 2006, pp. 12–14
  135. Tarākī 2006, pp. 12–14: "Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and well into the twentieth, Hebron was a peripheral, "borderline" community, attracting poor itinerant peasants and those with Sufi inclinations from its environs. The tradition of shorabat Sayyidna Ibrahim, a soup kitchen surviving into the present day and supervised by the awqaf, and that of the Sufi zawaya gave the city a reputation for being an asylum for the poor and the spiritual, cementing the poor cast of a town supporting the unproductive and the needy (Ju'beh 2003). This reputation was bound to shed a conservative, dull cast on the city, a place not known for high living, dynamism, or innovativeness."
  136. Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, p. 41
  137. Gorenberg 2007, p. 145.
  138. Laurens 1999, p. 508.
  139. Renan 1864, p. 93 remarked of the town that it was 'one of the bulwarks of Semitic ideas, in their most austere form.'
  140. Büssow 2011, p. 199.
  141. Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, p. 92.
  142. Campos 2007, pp. 55–56
  143. Kupferschmidt 1987, pp. 110–11.
  144. M. Th. Houtsma (1993). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. Volume 4. BRILL. p. 887. ISBN 90-04-09790-2. |volume= has extra text (help)
  145. Cohen 2008, p. 64.
  146. Kupferschmidt 1987, p. 82: "In any event, after his appointment, Abd al-Hayy al-Khatib not only played a prominent role in the disturbances of 1929, but, in general, appeared as one of the few loyal adherents of Hajj Amin in that town."
  147. Tarākī 2006, pp. 12–14.
  148. Cohen 2008, pp. 19–20.
  149. Ilan Ben Zion, 'Eyeing Nepal, experts warn Israel is unprepared for its own Big One,' The Times of Israel 27 April 2015.
  150. Kupferschmidt 1987, p. 237
  151. Wein 1993, pp. 138–39,
  152. Bauman 1994, p. 22
  153. Krämer 2011, p. 232.
  154. Segev 2001, p. 318.
  155. Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, p. 92
  156. Post-holocaust and anti-semitism – Issues 40–75 – Page 35 Merkaz ha-Yerushalmi le-ʻinyene tsibur u-medinah, Temple University. Center for Jewish Community Studies – 2006: “After the 1929 riots in Mandatory Palestine, the non-Jewish French writer Albert Londres asked him why the Arabs had murdered the old, pious Jews in Hebron and Safed, with whom they had no quarrel. The mayor answered: "In a way you behave like in a war. You don't kill what you want. You kill what you find. Next time they will all be killed, young and old." Later on, Londres spoke again to the mayor and tested him ironically by saying: "You cannot kill all the Jews. There are 150,000 of them." Nashashibi answered "in a soft voice, 'Oh no, it'll take two days.”
  157. Segev 2001, pp. 325–26: The Zionist Archives preserves lists of Jews who were saved by Arabs; one list contains 435 names.
  158. The Tangled Truth, Benny Morris
  159. Campos 2007, pp. 56–57
  160. Chaim Levinsohn, 'Israel Supreme Court Rules Hebron Jews Can't Reclaim Lands Lost After 1948 ,' Haaretz 18 February 2011.
  161. The Road to Jerusalem: Glubb Pasha, Palestine and the Jews, Benny Morris – 2003. pp. 186–87.
  162. Thomas A Idinopulos, Jerusalem, 1994, p. 300, "So severe were the Jordanian restrictions against Jews gaining access to the old city that visitors wishing to cross over from west Jerusalem...had to produce a baptismal certificate."
  163. Armstrong, Karen, Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths, 1997, "Only clergy, diplomats, UN personnel, and a few privileged tourists were permitted to go from one side to the other. The Jordanians required most tourists to produce baptismal certificates—to prove they were not Jewish ... ."
  164. Robins 2004, pp. 71–72
  165. Michael Dumper; Bruce E. Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5.
  166. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Sir H. A. R. Gibb 1980. p. 337.
  167. Efrat 1984, p. 192
  168. Auerbach 2009, p. 79: "Under Jordanian rule, the last vestiges of a Jewish historical presence in Hebron were obliterated. The Avraham Avinu synagogue, already in ruins, was razed; a pen for goats, sheep, and donkeys was built on the site."
  169. Lewis, Bernard; Cohen, Amnon (8 March 2015). Population and Revenue in the Towns of Palestine in the Sixteenth Century. Princeton University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-4008-6779-0.
  170. רבי חיים יוסף דוד אזולאי, Meir Benayhu, Mosad Harav Kook, 1959.
  171. 171.0 171.1 171.2 171.3 "Hebron". Jewish Virtual Library.
  172. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Turnerp261
  173. The Missionary Herald. Board. 1825. p. 65.
  174. Augustin Calmet (1832). Dictionary of the Holy Bible. Crocker and Brewster. p. 488.
  175. William McClure Thomson, The Land and the Book, Southern Palestine and Jerusalem, p.275
  176. Robinson, p. 88
  177. David Roberts, 'The Holy Land – 123 Coloured Facsimile Lithographs and The Journal from his visit to the Holy Land.' Terra Sancta Arts, 1982. ISBN 965-260-001-6. Plate III – 13.Journal entry 17 March 1839.
  178. James A. Huie (1840). The history of the Jews, from the taking of Jerusalem by Titus to the present time [by J.A. Huie]. p. 242.
  179. PEF Survey of Western Palestine, Volume III, p.309
  180. Clorinda Minor (1851). Meshullam!: Or, Tidings from Jerusalem. Arno Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-405-10302-5.
  181. Alexander Scholch (Schölch), 'The Demographic Development of Palestine, 1850-1882,' International Journal of Middle East Studies Vol. 17, No. 4 (Nov., 1985), pp. 485-505,p.486
  182. PEF Survey of Western Palestine, Volume III, p.309
  183. PEF Survey of Western Palestine, Volume III, p.309
  184. PEF Survey of Western Palestine, Volume III, p.309
  185. The Friend. Volumes 54–55. The Friend. 1881. p. 333. |volume= has extra text (help)
  186. Tzvi Rabinowicz (1996). The Encyclopedia of Hasidism. Jason Aronson. ISBN 978-1-56821-123-7.
  187. Barron, 1923, Table V, Sub-district of Hebron, p. 10
  188. Jessie Sampter (2007). Modern Palestine – A Symposium. READ BOOKS. ISBN 978-1-4067-3834-6.
  189. Government of Palestine (1945), A Survey of Palestine, Vol. 1, p. 151
  190. First Census, Government of Jordan. 1964, p. 06
  191. West Bank, Volume 1 Table I – West Bank population according to 1967 census and Jordanian 1961 census, Levy Economics Institute
  192. West Bank, Volume 1 Table 4 – Population by religion, sex, age, and type of settlement, Levy Economics Institute
  193. Palestinian Census 1997 Archived 2010-11-15 at the Wayback Machine
  194. Palestinian security forces deploy in Hebron 25/10/2008 gives about 500 as of October 2008
  195. The last official census in 2007 gave 165,000.2007 Locality Population Statistics Archived 2010-12-10 at the Wayback Machine Hebron Governorate Population, Housing and Establishment Census 2007. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  196. Adamczyk, Ed (7 July 2017). "UNESCO declares Hebron, West Bank, a world heritage site". UPI. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  197. "Israelis outraged by UNESCO decision on Hebron holy site". ABC News. Associated Press. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  198. Finn 1868, p. 184:'the great oak of Sibta, commonly called Abraham's oak by most people except the Jews, who do not believe in any Abraham's oak there. The great patriarch planted, indeed, a grove at Beersheba; but the “Eloné Mamre” they declare to have been “plains,” not “oaks,” (which would be Alloné Mamre,) and to have been situated northwards instead of westwards from the present Hebron.'
  199. Museum With No Frontiers (2004). Pilgrimage, sciences and Sufism: Islamic art in the West Bank and Gaza. Édisud. p. 200. ISBN 978-9953-36-064-5.
  200. 200.0 200.1 Vilnay 1973, pp. 170–72
  201. Miscellanies of divinitie: divided into three books Edward Kellet, 1633. p. 223: "Sixthly, the field of Damascus, where the red earth lieth, of which they report Adam was formed; which earth is tough, and may be wrought like wax, and lieth close by Hebron."
  202. Neuman 2018, p. 1
  203. Marcus Milwright (2008). The Fortress of the Raven: Karak in the Middle Islamic Period (1100 -1650). BRILL. p. 119. ISBN 978-90-04-16519-9.
  204. J. G. R. Forlong (2003). Encyclopedia of Religions Or Faiths of Man 1906, Part 2. Kessinger Publishing. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-7661-4308-1.
  205. Zev Vilnay (1975). The Sacred land. Volume 2. Jewish Publication Society of America. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-8276-0064-5. |volume= has extra text (help)
  206. Craveri 1967, p. 25.
  207. Milman 1840, p. 49.
  208. Gil 1997, p. 100.
  209. Levi della Vida 1993, p. 648
  210. Woodhead, Christine (2011-12-15). The Ottoman World. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-136-49894-7.
  211. Neuman 2018, p. 5: "This narrowed or fundamentalist focus involves three further changes that are also useful for framing this study: the first is that religiously inscribed space, particularly the remaking of many Palestinian areas into a geography of biblical sites and origins, has been given a new significance in the construction of a distinct Jewish (settler) identity. Spatial reorganization has also resulted in a range of incremental practices included under the rubric of religion that link up with this process of inscription— including renaming, reenvisioning, and rebuilding. These practices in turn support and magnify resolute place-based attachments. The second shift is that these remade biblical sites, specifically in Hebron and within the Tomb of the Patriarchs itself, are being given a new centrality in Jewish observance, one that largely cancels out the exilic orientation of Jewish tradition. They give rise to a form of Jewish observance focusing on exact origins and specific graves to the exclusion of a more characteristic yearning for the messianic future. Third, the final change entails writing out the many historical convergences between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam reflected in the traditions themselves so as to eliminate possibilities for accommodating difference, while using Jewish observance and forms of direct violence in order to erase the presence of an existing Palestinian population."

Sources

  • Kohler, C. (1896). "Un nouveau récit de l'invention des Patriarches Abraham, Isaac et Jacob à Hebron". Revue de l'Orient Latin. Paris. 4: 477.
  • Kraeling, E.G.H. (April 1925). "The Early Cult of Hebron and Judg. 16:1–3". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. 41 (3): 174–178. doi:10.1086/370066. S2CID 171070877.
  • Mulder, M.J. (2004). "Qirya". In Botterweck, G. Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer; Fabry, Heinz-Josef (eds.). Theological dictionary of the Old Testament. 13. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 164–167. ISBN 0-8028-2337-8. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
  • Salaville, Sévérien (1910). "Hebron". In Herbermann, C.G.; Pace, E.A.; Pallen, C.B.; Shahan, T.J.; Wynne, John Joseph; MacErlean, Andrew Alphonsus (eds.). The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic church. 7. Robert Appleton company. pp. 184–186.

External links

Template:Cities in the West Bank Template:Hebron Governorate Template:Holy sites in Judaism Template:Towns depopulated during the First Jewish–Roman War Template:Villages destroyed during the Bar Kokhba revolt