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Sidon 004.jpg
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GovernorateSouth Governorate
DistrictSidon District
Settled3rd millennium BC
 • CityTemplate:Infobox settlement/impus
 • Metro
Template:Infobox settlement/impus
 • City~80,000
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)

Sidon, known locally as Sayda or Saida (Arabic: صيدا‎), is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate, of which it is the capital, on the Mediterranean coast. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the north are both about 40 kilometres (25 miles) away. Sidon has a population of about 80,000 within city limits, while its metropolitan area has more than a quarter-million inhabitants.


Era: New Kingdom
(1550–1069 BC)
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs

The Phoenician name Ṣīdūn (𐤑𐤃𐤍, ṢDN) probably meant "fishery" or "fishing town".[5] It is mentioned in Papyrus Anastasi I as Djedouna.[1][2][3][4] It appears in Biblical Hebrew as Ṣīḏōn (Hebrew: צִידוֹן‎) and in Syriac as Ṣidon (ܨܝܕܘܢ). This was Hellenised as Sidṓn (Greek: Σιδών), which was Latinised as Sidon. The name appears in Classical Arabic as Ṣaydūn (صَيْدونْ) and in Modern Arabic as Ṣaydā (صيدا).

As a Roman colony, it was notionally refounded and given the formal name Colonia Aurelia Pia Sidon to honour its imperial sponsor.

In the Book of Genesis, Sidon was the first-born son of Canaan, who was a son of Ham, thereby making Sidon a great-grandson of Noah.

During the crusades, Sidon was known in Latin as Sagittus and in French as Saete, Sayette or Sagette.


In the years before Christianity, Sidon had many conquerors: Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Persians, Greeks, and finally Romans. Herod the Great visited Sidon. Both Jesus and Saint Paul are said to have visited it, too (see Biblical Sidon below). The city was eventually conquered by the Arabs and then by the Ottoman Turks.[citation needed]


Sidon has been inhabited since very early in prehistory. The archaeological site of Sidon II shows a lithic assemblage dating to the Acheulean, whilst finds at Sidon III include a Heavy Neolithic assemblage suggested to date just prior to the invention of pottery.[6]

Phoenicia in early classical antiquity

Persian style bull protome found in Sidon gives testimony of the Achaemenid rule and influence. Marble, 5th century BC

Sidon was one of the most important Phoenician cities, and it may have been the oldest. From there and other ports, a great Mediterranean commercial empire was founded. Homer praised the skill of its craftsmen in producing glass, purple dyes, and its women's skill at the art of embroidery. It was also from here that a colonising party went to found the city of Tyre. Tyre also grew into a great city, and in subsequent years there was competition between the two, each claiming to be the metropolis ('Mother City') of Phoenicia. Glass manufacturing, Sidon's most important enterprise in the Phoenician era, was conducted on a vast scale, and the production of purple dye was almost as important. The small shell of the Murex trunculus was broken in order to extract the pigment that was so rare it became the mark of royalty.[7][8] In AD 1855, the sarcophagus of King Eshmun’azar II was discovered. From a Phoenician inscription on its lid, it appears that he was a "king of the Sidonians," probably in the 5th century BC, and that his mother was a priestess of ‘Ashtart, "the goddess of the Sidonians."[9] In this inscription the gods Eshmun and Ba‘al Sidon 'Lord of Sidon' (who may or may not be the same) are mentioned as chief gods of the Sidonians. ‘Ashtart is entitled ‘Ashtart-Shem-Ba‘al, '‘Ashtart the name of the Lord', a title also found in an Ugaritic text.[citation needed] Nebuchadnezzar II subjugated the city to be part of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.[10] At the end of the Persian era, in 351 BC, Phoenicia was invaded by Artaxerxes III.[citation needed]

Persian and Hellenistic periods

Like other Phoenician city-states, Sidon suffered from a succession of conquerors, first by the Persian Achamenid empire in the 6th century BC, ending with its occupation by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, and the start of the Hellenistic era of Sidon's history. The Persian influcence seem to have been profound, as is observed in the change of the architectural style of the city. Under the successors of Alexander, it enjoyed relative autonomy and organised games and competitions in which the greatest athletes of the region participated. In the Hellenistic-period necropolis of Sidon, important finds such as the Alexander Sarcophagus, the Lycian tomb and the Sarcophagus of the Crying Women were discovered, which are now on display at the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul.[11]

Roman period

The Peutinger Table showing the location of Tyre and Sidon within the Roman Empire

When Sidon fell under Roman domination, it continued to mint its own silver coins. The Romans also built a theater and other major monuments in the city. In the reign of Elagabalus, a Roman colony was established there. During the Byzantine period, when the great earthquake of AD 551 destroyed most of the cities of Phoenice, Beirut's School of Law took refuge in Sidon. The town continued quietly for the next century, until it was conquered by the Arabs in AD 636.[citation needed]

Crusader-Ayyubid period

Sidon Sea Castle, built by the Crusaders in AD 1228

On 4 December 1110, Sidon was captured after the siege of Sidon, a decade after the First Crusade, by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem and King Sigurd I of Norway. It then became the center of the Lordship of Sidon, an important vassal-state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Saladin captured it from the Crusaders in 1187, but German Crusaders restored it to Christian control in the Crusade of 1197. It would remain an important Crusader stronghold until it was finally destroyed by the Ayyubids in 1249. In 1260, it was again destroyed by the Mongols led by Kitbuqa.[12] The remains of the original walls are still visible.[citation needed][dubious ]

Ottoman period

After Sidon came under Ottoman Turkish rule in the early 16th century, it became the capital of the Sidon Eyalet (province) and regained a great deal of its earlier commercial importance.

During the Egyptian–Ottoman War, Sidon - like much of Ottoman Syria - was occupied by the forces of Muhammad Ali of Egypt. His ambitions were opposed by the British Empire, which backed the Ottomans. The British Admiral Charles Napier, commanding a mixed squadron of British, Turkish and Austrian ships, bombarded Sidon on 26 September 1840, and landed with the storming column. Sidon capitulated in two days, and the British went on to Acre. This action was recalled in two Royal Navy vessels being named "HMS Sidon".[citation needed]

After World War I

Sidon with a view of the Mediterranean coast

After World War I it became part of the French Mandate of Lebanon. During World War II the city, together with the rest of Lebanon, was captured by British forces fighting against the Vichy French, and following the war it became a major city of independent Lebanon.

Following the Palestinian exodus in 1948, a considerable number of Palestinian refugees arrived in Sidon, as in other Lebanese cities, and were settled at the large refugee camps of Ein el-Hilweh and Mieh Mieh. At first these consisted of enormous rows of tents, but gradually houses were constructed. The refugee camps constituted de facto neighborhoods of Sidon, but had a separate legal and political status which made them into a kind of enclaves. At the same time, the remaining Jews of the city fled, and the Jewish cemetery fell into disrepair, threatened by coastal erosion.

Sidon was a small fishing town of 10,000 inhabitants in 1900, but studies in 2000 showed a population of 65,000 in the city, and around 200,000 in the metropolitan area. The little level land around the city is used for cultivation of some wheat, vegetables, and fruits, especially citrus and bananas. The fishing in the city remains active with a newly opened fishery that sells fresh fish by bidding every morning. The ancient basin was transformed into a fishing port, while a small quay was constructed to receive small commercial vessels. (Refer to the "Old City" and the "Architecture and Landscape" sections below).

Panorama of Sidon as seen from the top of the Sea Castle, 2009
Panorama of Sidon as seen from the top of the Sea Castle, 2009

Saida International Stadium was inaugurated in 2000 for the Asian Football Confederation's Cup 2000.

Impact on Sidon of regional underdevelopment

According to a recent United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) report "data also point to an increase in urban poverty especially in Lebanon's largest cities suburbs such as Beirut, Tripoli and Saida, as illustrated by poverty-driven symptoms (child labour, over-crowding and deteriorated environment conditions)."[13]

In another UNDP report, the author discusses the development predominance of Beirut over the rest of the regions of Lebanon (North, South and Beqaa) is a well-known imbalance that can be dated to the early 19th century.[14] With the expansion of Beirut in the 1870s, urban growth in the future capital outpaced Tripoli and Saida. Transportation routes, missionary schools, universities and hospitals as well as the Beirut port development and the commerce of silk participated to the fortification of Beirut as a major trade center for Mediterranean exchange (ARNAUD 1993; LABAKI 1999: 23). However, the establishment of Great Lebanon in 1920, under the French mandate, added the poorer areas of the North (Akkar), Beqaa (Baalbak-Hermel) and the South (Jabal Aamel) to the relatively affluent cities of Mount Lebanon. This addition made of Lebanon a country composed of unequally developed regions. This legacy remains a heavy load to bear socially, culturally, economically and politically. Even though the public policies elaborated by the young Lebanese State were attempting to have regional perspectives, the early urban planning schemes reveal a development approach exclusively axed on Beirut and its suburbs.

The post war development policy of the State, promoted by Hariri government (1992–1998), was centered around balanced development and is widely inspired by the 1943 Pact and the 1989 Taef agreement (LABAKI1993: 104). However the application of this policy aims mainly at the rehabilitation and construction of roads and infrastructures (electricity, telephone, sewage). Another of its components is the rehabilitation of government buildings (airport, port, schools, universities and hospitals). Transportation projects (mainly concentrated on the coastal line) constitute 25% of the budget of 10-year economic plan developed by the CDR (BAALBAKI 1994: 90). However, all these projects are predominantly concentrated around Beirut, ignoring the regions.

The Former Makab (waste dump) and the Treatment Plant

Near the southern entrance to the city used to be a 'rubbish mountain' called at the time by the locals the Makab; namely, a 600,000 cubic metre heap that reached the height of a four-story building. It was originally created to dispose of the remains of buildings destroyed in Israeli air strikes during the 1982 invasion, but it then became the main dump for the city. Growing out of the sea, it became an environmental hazard, with medical waste and plastic bags polluting nearby fishing grounds.[citation needed]

Sidon politicians, including the Hariri family, failed for decades to resolve the Makab crisis—which has endangered residents health (especially during episodic burning). In 2004, Engineer Hamzi Moghrabi, a Sidon native, conceived the idea to establish a treatment plant for the city's decades-old chronic waste problem. He established the privately funded IBC Enviro and the treatment plant became operational in 2013.[citation needed]

The Ministry of Environment came up with a $50,000+ plan to clean the whole area and transform the dump into a green space, along with other heaps in the country. Qamla beach in Sidon, a coast in close proximity to the Sea Castle, witnessed a large municipal cleanup in May 2011, as it was an easy target of rubbish being washed up by the Makab. These plans aim to revive the former glory of the city's coasts and attract tourists who avoided swimming in Sidon's sea before. The project of cleaning the region where the waste dump has already started, and currently a waves-barrier is being built, and the vast bulk of the waste dump being cleared.[15][16][17][18]


The overwhelming majority of Sidon's population belong to the Sunni sect of Islam, with few Shiites and Christians. Sidon is the seat of the Greek Melkite Catholic Archbishop of Sidon and Deir el Qamar, and has housed a significant Catholic population throughout its history.[19] Sidon also hosts the seat of the Shiite Ayatollah of South Lebanon.[citation needed]

In the 1930s, when Lebanon was still under the French mandate, Sidon had the largest Jewish population in Lebanon, estimated at 3,588, compared to 3,060 in Beirut.[20]

Religion Voters Percent (%) Religion Voters Percent (%)
Sunni Muslim 36163 79.7
Shia Muslim 4888 10.8 Roman Latin Catholic 82 0.2
Armenian Catholic 38 0.1
Druze 43 0.1 Chaldean 19 0.0
Alawite 2 0.0 Syriac Orthodox 18 0.0
Greek Melkite Catholic 1686 3.7 Syriac Catholic 17 0.0
Maronite 1513 3.3 Assyrian 4 0.0
Greek Orthodox 310 0.7 Copt 1 0.0
Armenian Orthodox 256 0.6 Other Christians 19 0.0
Evangelicals 171 0.4 Unspecified 161 0.4

Main sights

Alleyway inside the Old Souks.
Alleyways of the old city of Sidon.
  • Sidon Sea Castle, a fortress built by the Crusaders in the early 13th century. It is located near the Port of Sidon.
  • Sidon Soap Museum. It traces the history of the soap making in the region and its different manufacturing steps.
  • Khan el Franj ("Caravanserai of the French"), built by Emir Fakhreddine in the 17th century to accommodate French merchants and goods in order to develop trade with Europe. This is a typical khan with a large rectangular courtyard and a central fountain surrounded by covered galleries.
  • Debbane Palace, a historical residence built in 1721, an example of Arab-Ottoman architecture. It is currently in the process of being transformed into the History Museum of Sidon.[21] This villa was earlier occupied by the Hammoud family in the 18th century and also by members of the famous Ottoman aristocrats of the Abaza clan in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The vaults at the ground level being originally stables for the villa residents and then turned into shops as part of the old souks, and known until recent time by association to the Abazas.
  • The Castle of St. Louis (Qalaat Al Muizz). It was built by the Crusaders in the 13th century on top of the remains of a fortress built by the Fatimid caliph Al Muizz. It is located to the south of the Old Souks near Murex Hill.
  • Eshmun Temple, dedicated to the Phoenician God of healing. Built in the 7th century BC, it is located in the north of Sidon near the Awali river.
  • The British War Cemetery in Sidon. Opened in 1943 by units of His Majesty's (King George VI) British Forces occupying the Lebanon after the 1941 campaign against the Vichy French troops. It was originally used for the burial of men who died while serving with the occupation force, but subsequently the graves of a number of the casualties of the 1941 campaign were moved into the cemetery from other burial grounds or from isolated positions in the vicinity. The cemetery now contains 176 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War and nine war graves of other nationalities. It was designed by G. Vey. It is perhaps that only garden in modern Sidon that is elegantly kept and cared for. It is not a public garden but can be visited when the wardens have its gateways opened[22]
  • Khan Sacy in Sidon: Khan Sacy has undergone a series of modifications and tells part of the city's past. In its heart, it hides a much older story. It is composed of rooms of a majestic height with three water wells, three hammams and an oven.


Sidon I is an archaeological site located to the east of the city, south of the road to Jezzine. An assemblage of flint tools was found by P. E. Gigues suggested to date between 3800 and 3200 BC. The collection included narrow axes or chisels that were polished on one side and flaked on the other, similar to ones found at Ain Cheikh, Nahr Zahrani and Gelal en Namous.[6] The collection appears to have gone missing from the Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut.[23]

Sidon II is said to be "near the church" at approximately fifty meters above sea level. P. E. Gigues suggested that the industry found on the surface of this site dated to the Acheulean.[6]

Sidon III was found by E. Passemard in the 1920s, who made a collection of material that is now in the National Museum of Beirut marked "Camp de l'Aviation". It includes large flint and chert bifacials that may be of Heavy Neolithic origin.[6]

Sidon IV is the tell mound of ancient Sidon with Early Bronze Age (3200 BC –) deposits, now located underneath the ruined Saint Louis Castle and what are also thought to be the ruins of a Roman theater.[6]

The area around Sidon contains a number of important necropoli (below in order of age, and noting their principal excavators):[24]

  • Dakerman (Roger Saidah, 1968–1969)
  • Tambourit (Saidah, 1977)
  • Magharet Abloun (Aimé Péretié, 1855; Ernest Renan, 1864; Georges Contenau, 1920)
  • Ayaa (William King Eddy, 1887; Osman Hamdi Bey, 1892; Contenau, 1920)
  • Ain al-Hilweh (Charles Cutler Torrey, 1919–1920)
  • El-Merah (Contenau, 1920)
  • Qrayé (Contenau, 1920)
  • Almoun, (Conenau, 1924)
  • El-Harah (Theodore Makridi, 1904; Contenau, 1924)
  • Magharet Abloun, Greco-Roman part (Renan, 1864; Contenau, 1914–1924)
  • Helalié/Baramié/Mar Elias (William John Bankes, 1816; Renan 1864; Contenau, 1914; M. Meurdrac & L. Albanèse, 1938–1939)

In indication of the high-profile of the old city of Sidon in archaeological expeditions, and mainly in the 19th century, in October 1860 the famous French scholar Ernest Renan was entrusted with an archaeological mission to Lebanon, which included the search for the antique parts of Sidon. The Phoenician inscriptions that he discovered, and his field data, were eventually published in his notebook the: Mission de Phénicie (1864–1874; Phoenician Expedition).

The St. Louis land-castle grounds were excavated in 1914–1920 by a French team. Then eastwards a new site was also excavated by another generation of French expeditions in the 1960s. This same site received renewed attention in 1998 when the Directorate General of Antiquities in Lebanon authorized the British Museum to begin excavations on this area of land that was specifically demarcated for archaeological research. This has resulted in published papers, with a special focus on studying ceramics.[25]

The archaeological fieldwork was not fully undertaken since the independence of the Lebanon. The main finds are displayed in the National Museum in Beirut. The fieldwork was also interrupted during the long civil war period, and it is now resumed but at a timid and slow scale, and not involving major international expeditions or expertise. Perhaps this is also indicative of the general lack in cultural interests among the authorities of this city, and almost of the non-existence of notable intellectual activities in its modern life. There are signs that the locals are beginning to recognize the value of the medieval quarters, but this remains linked to minor individual initiatives and not a coordinated collective effort to rehabilitate it like it has been the case with Byblos, even though the old district of Sidon contains a great wealth in old and ancient architecture.

Biblical Sidon

Shrine commemorating the last meeting place between St. Paul and St. Peter inside the Old City of Sidon.

Hebrew Bible/Old Testament

The Hebrew Bible describes Sidon (צִידוֹן‎) in several passages:

New Testament


  • The account ascribed to the Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon makes Sidon a daughter of Pontus, son of Nereus. She is said there to have first invented musical song from the sweetness of her voice.


Notable people

In antiquity and the pre-modern era

Chronological list.

In the modern era

  • Adel Osseiran, co-founder of modern Lebanon, was a prominent Lebanese statesman, a former Speaker of the Lebanese Parliament, and one of the founding fathers of the Lebanese Republic.
  • Raymond Audi, international banker, and former Minister of Refugees in the government of Lebanon (Originally Palestinian)
  • Ali Osseiran, Member of Parliament and Former Minister
  • Afif al-Bizri, (Afif El-Bizri) former Chief of Staff of the Syrian armed forces with a high-standing military rank and political profile during the Syria-Egypt republican union of the Nasser era.
  • The Four Brothers - Riad El Bizri's Sons:
    • Ahmad El-Bizri, Salah-Eddine El-Bizri (Mayor of Sidon from 1937 till 1951. Member of Parliament from 1951 till 1953), Ezzedine El-Bizri, Anwar El-Bizri.
  • Hisham El-Bizri, filmmaker, producer, professor
  • Nader El-Bizri, philosopher, architect
  • Nazih El Bizri, longstanding politician: mayor of Sidon from 1952 till 1959, Member of Lebanese Parliament from 1953 till 1958 and from 1972 till 1992. Lebanese Minister of Health, and Minister of Social Affairs from 1955 till 1956, then from 1972 till 1973, and from 1980 till 1982.
  • Rafic Hariri, former Prime Minister, billionaire and international businessman
  • Bahia Hariri, former Minister of Education in the governments of Lebanon and philanthropist
  • Saad Hariri, youngest former Prime Minister of Lebanon
  • Bahaa Hariri, international businessman and billionaire, son of Rafic Hariri
  • Ahmad Hijazi (born 1994), Lebanese footballer[27]
  • Sheikh Mohamad Osseiran, Jaafari Mufti of Sidon
  • Maarouf Saad, former deputy representing Sidon in the national parliament and founder of the Popular Nasserite Party
  • Fouad Siniora, former Prime Minister of Lebanon, minister of finance, and member of parliament
  • Riad Solh, former Prime Minister of Lebanon
  • Sami Solh, former Prime Minister of Lebanon
  • Fayza Ahmed (Al-Rawwass), Arab singer formerly based in Egypt
  • Paul Watkins (born 1950), former Manson family member lived in Sidon during his childhood (d.1990)
  • Hussein Zein (born 1995), Lebanese footballer[28]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Gauthier, Henri (1929). Dictionnaire des Noms Géographiques Contenus dans les Textes Hiéroglyphiques Vol. 6. p. 113.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Wallis Budge, E. A. (1920). An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary: with an index of English words, king list and geological list with indexes, list of hieroglyphic characters, coptic and semitic alphabets, etc. Vol II. John Murray. p. 1064.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gauthier, Henri (1929). Dictionnaire des Noms Géographiques Contenus dans les Textes Hiéroglyphiques Vol. 6. p. 138.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wallis Budge, E. A. (1920). An Egyptian hieroglyphic dictionary: with an index of English words, king list and geological list with indexes, list of hieroglyphic characters, coptic and semitic alphabets, etc. Vol II. John Murray. p. 1065.
  5. Frederick Carl Eiselen (1907). Sidon: A Study in Oriental History, Volume 4. Columbia University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780231928007.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Lorraine Copeland; P. Wescombe (1965). Inventory of Stone-Age sites in Lebanon, p. 136. Imprimerie Catholique.
  7. Jacoby, David (1997). "Silk in Western Byzantium before the Fourth Crusade". Trade, Commodities, and Shipping in the Medieval Mediterranean. pp. 455 ff and notes [17]–[19].
  8. "Porphyrogennetos". The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, NY & Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 1991. p. 1701. ISBN 0-195-04652-8.
  9. Thomas Kelly, Herodotus and the Chronology of the Kings of Sidon, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 268, pp. 39–56, 1987
  10. Tucker 2019, p. 876.
  11. "Istanbul Archaeology Museum". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
  12. Runciman 1987, p. 308.
  13. [1] Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  14. "Towards a Regionally Balance Development" (PDF). Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  15. Antelava, Natalia (25 December 2009). "Lebanese city's mountain of rubbish". BBC News. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  16. "Mountain of rubbish overwhelms Sidon". Emirates 24/7. Archived from the original on 27 November 2009. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  17. "Sidon chokes under rubbish dump". Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  18. "Syringes plague Sidon beach as dump spills medical waste". The Daily Star Newspaper - Lebanon. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  19. "Saïdā (Sidone) (Maronite Eparchy) [Catholic-Hierarchy]". Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  20. Simon, Reeva S., Michael M. Laskier, and Sara Reguer, eds. 2003. The Jews of the Middle East and North Africa in Modern Times. New York: Columbia University Press. P. 332
  21. "Welcome to Debbane Palace". Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  22. Reading Room Manchester. "Cemetery Details". CWGC. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
  23. Gigues, P.E., Leba'a, Kafer Garra et Qraye, nécropoles dde la région sidonienne. BMB, vol. 1, pp. 35–76, vol. 2, pp. 30–72, vol. 3, pp. 54–63.
  24. Nina Jidéjian, Greater Sidon and its "Cities of the Dead", National Museum News], page 24
  25. "Previous Excavation". SidonExcavation. Archived from the original on 19 April 2002. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  26. Suda, § gam.481
  27. "Ahmad Hijazi - Soccer player profile & career statistics - Global Sports Archive". Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  28. "Hussein Zein - Soccer player profile & career statistics - Global Sports Archive". Retrieved 23 November 2020.


  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainEaston, Matthew George (1897). Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  • Additional notes taken from Collier's Encyclopedia (1967 edition)
  • Runciman, Steven (1987). A History of the Crusades: Volume 3, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521347723.
  • Tucker, Spencer C. (2019). Middle East Conflicts from Ancient Egypt to the 21st Century: An Encyclopedia and Document Collection. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-440-85353-1.

Further reading

  • Aubet, Maria Eugenia. The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade. 2d ed. Translated by Mary Turton. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
  • Markoe, Glenn. Phoenicians. Vol. 2, Peoples of the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
  • Moscati, Sabatino. The World of the Phoenicians. London: Phoenix Giant, 1999.

External links

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