Virgin birth of Jesus
The virgin birth of Jesus is the Christian doctrine that Jesus was conceived and born by his mother Mary through the power of the Holy Spirit and without sexual intercourse. It is mentioned only in Matthew 1:18-25 and Luke 1:26-38, and the modern scholarly consensus is that the narrative rests on very slender historical foundations.
The Eastern Orthodox Churches accept the doctrine as authoritative by reason of its inclusion in the Nicene Creed, and the Catholic Church likewise holds it authoritative for faith through the Apostles' Creed as well as the Nicene. Christians, including Protestants, traditionally regard it as an explanation of the mixture of the human and divine natures of Jesus. Nevertheless, there are many contemporary churches in which it is considered orthodox to accept the virgin birth but not heretical to deny it.
New Testament narratives: Matthew and Luke
|Events in the|
|Life of Jesus|
according to the canonical gospels
|Portals: Christianity Bible|
The Gospels of Matthew and Luke agree that Mary's husband was named Joseph, that he was of the Davidic line, and that he played no role in Jesus's divine conception, but beyond this they are very different. Matthew underlines the virginity of Mary by references to the Book of Isaiah (using the Greek translation in the Septuagint, rather than the mostly Hebrew Masoretic Text) and by his narrative statement that Joseph had no sexual relations with her until after the birth (a choice of words which leaves open the possibility that they did have relations after that).
18: Now the birth of Jesus the Messiah took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been engaged to Joseph, but before they lived together, she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit.
19: Her husband Joseph, being a righteous man and unwilling to expose her to public disgrace, planned to dismiss her quietly.
20: But just when he had resolved to do this, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream and said, "Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary as your wife, for the child conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit.
21: She will bear a son, and you are to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins."
22: All this took place to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet:
23: "Look, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall name him Emmanuel," which means, "God is with us."
24: When Joseph awoke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him; he took her as his wife,
25: but had no marital relations with her until she had borne a son; and he named him Jesus.
Luke introduces Mary as a virgin, describes her puzzlement at being told she will bear a child despite her lack of sexual experience, and informs the reader that this pregnancy is to be effected through God's Holy Spirit.
26: In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth,
27: to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's name was Mary.
28: And he came to her and said, "Greetings, favored one! The Lord is with you."
29: But she was much perplexed by his words and pondered what sort of greeting this might be.
30: The angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.
31: And now, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus.
32: He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David.
33: He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end."
34: Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, since I am a virgin?"
35: The angel said to her, "The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be holy; he will be called Son of God.
36: And now, your relative Elizabeth in her old age has also conceived a son; and this is the sixth month for her who was said to be barren.
37: For nothing will be impossible with God."
38: Then Mary said, "Here am I, the servant of the Lord; let it be with me according to your word." Then the angel departed from her.
The most likely cultural context for both Matthew and Luke is Jewish Christian or mixed Gentile/Jewish-Christian circles rooted in Jewish tradition. The ancient world had no understanding that male semen and female ovum were both needed to form a fetus; instead they thought that the male contribution in reproduction consisted of some sort of formative or generative principle, while Mary's bodily fluids would provide all the matter that was needed for Jesus's bodily form, including his male sex. This cultural milieu was conducive to miraculous birth stories – they were common in biblical tradition going back to Abraham and Sarah (and the conception of Isaac).
Tales of virgin birth and the impregnation of mortal women by deities were well known in the 1st-century Greco-Roman world, and Second Temple Jewish works were also capable of producing accounts of the appearances of angels and miraculous births for ancient heroes such as Melchizedek, Noah, and Moses. Luke's virgin birth story is a standard plot from the Jewish scriptures, as for example in the annunciation scenes for Isaac and for Samson, in which an angel appears and causes apprehension, the angel gives reassurance and announces the coming birth, the mother raises an objection, and the angel gives a sign. Nevertheless, "plausible sources that tell of virgin birth in areas convincingly close to the gospels' own probable origins have proven extremely hard to demonstrate". Similarly, while it is widely accepted that there is a connection with Zoroastrian (Persian) sources underlying Matthew's story of the Magi (the wise men from the East) and the Star of Bethlehem, a wider claim that Zoroastrianism formed the background to the infancy narratives has not achieved acceptance.
The Gospel of Luke says Mary is a virgin betrothed to Joseph,[Luke 1:27] while the Gospel of Matthew says Jesus's virginal conception happens before Mary lives with Joseph in his house,[Matthew 1:18] because, in a Jewish wedding, by being betrothed to a man, the woman is already his wife, yet she does not start living in his house until the wedding is over.[note 1] Mary's response to Gabriel – "How can this be, since I have no relations with a man?" (meaning, no sexual relations) – is an affirmation of Mary the wife of Joseph's virginity and obedience to the Torah that forbids adultery.
In the Gospel of Matthew, Joseph intends to divorce Mary on suspicion of adultery because he is a righteous man, that is, he is obedient to the Torah that mandates divorcing one's unfaithful wife. Because he is obedient, Joseph relents of his intention when, in a dream, he is informed by an angel of the virginal conception of Jesus.[Matthew 1:19-24]
Historicity and sources of the narratives
|Part of a series on|
In the entire Christian corpus the virgin birth is found only in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke, and the modern scholarly consensus is that the narrative rests on very slender historical foundations. Matthew uses Isaiah 7:14 to support his narrative, but scholars agree that the Hebrew word used in Isaiah, almah, signifies a girl of childbearing age without reference to virginity, and was aimed at Isaiah's own immediate circumstances. In the Gospel of John, slightly later than Matthew and Luke, Jesus has both father and mother, ("We have found him about whom Moses in the law and also the prophets wrote, Jesus, son of Joseph from Nazareth") and his conception does not entail divine intervention.
The earliest Christian writings, the Pauline epistles, do not contain any mention of a virgin birth and assume Jesus's full humanity; the Gospel of Mark, dating from around AD 70, has no birth story and states that Jesus's mother had no belief in her son as if she had forgotten the angel's visit. Matthew and Luke are late and anonymous compositions dating from the period AD 80-100, and it is almost certain that neither was the work of an eyewitness. This raises the question of where the authors of Matthew and Luke found their stories. Both used Mark as their basic source, but the virgin birth is not found there, nor, in view of the many inconsistencies between them, did one of them derive it from the other or share a common source. Raymond E. Brown suggested in 1973 that Joseph was the source of Matthew's account and Mary of Luke's, but modern scholars consider this "highly unlikely", given that the stories emerged so late. It follows that the two narratives were created by the two writers, drawing on ideas in circulation in some Christian circles perhaps by around AD 65.
Theology and development
Matthew and Luke use the virgin birth (or more accurately the divine conception that precedes it) to mark the moment when Jesus becomes the Son of God, a notable development over Mark, for whom the Sonship dates from Jesus's baptism, Mark 1:9–13 and the earlier Christianity of Paul and the pre-Pauline Christians for whom Jesus becomes the Son only at the Resurrection or even the Second Coming. The virgin birth was subsequently accepted by Christians as the proof of the divinity of Jesus, but its rebuttal during and after the 18th century European Enlightenment led some to redefine it as mythical, while others reaffirmed it in dogmatic terms. This division remains in place, although some national synods of the Catholic church have replaced a biological understanding with the idea of "theological truth", and some evangelical theologians hold it to be marginal rather than indispensable to the Christian faith.
Throughout Christian history a small number of groups have denied the virgin birth, particularly in the Near East. The Ebionites considered Jesus the Messiah, but rejected his divine nature and regarded him as fully human. Others, like Marcion, held that Christ's divinity meant that his human life, death and resurrection were only an appearance. By about AD 180 Jews were telling how Jesus had been illegitimately conceived by a Roman soldier named Pantera or Pandera, whose name is likely a pun on parthenos, virgin. The story was still current in the Middle Ages in satirical parody of the Christian gospels called the Toledot Yeshu. The Toledot Yeshu contains no historical facts, and was probably created as a tool for warding off conversions to Christianity.
Celebrations and devotions
Christians celebrate the conception of Jesus on 25 March and his birth on 25 December. (These dates are traditional; no one knows for certain when Jesus was born.) The Magnificat, based on Luke 1:46-55 is one of four well known Gospel canticles: the Benedictus and the Magnificat in the first chapter, and the Gloria in Excelsis and the Nunc dimittis in the second chapter of Luke, which are now an integral part of the Christian liturgical tradition. The Annunciation became an element of Marian devotions in medieval times, and by the 13th century direct references to it were widespread in French lyrics. The Eastern Orthodox Church uses the title "Ever Virgin Mary" as a key element of its Marian veneration, and as part of the Akathists hymns to Mary which are an integral part of its liturgy.
The doctrine is often represented in Christian art in terms of the annunciation to Mary by the Archangel Gabriel that she would conceive a child to be born the Son of God, and in Nativity scenes that include the figure of Salome. The Annunciation is one of the most frequently depicted scenes in Western art. Annunciation scenes also amount to the most frequent appearances of Gabriel in medieval art. The depiction of Joseph turning away in some Nativity scenes is a discreet reference to the fatherhood of the Holy Spirit, and the virgin birth.
Holy Doors, Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai in Egypt, 12th century
Sandro Botticelli (1489–90)
Mikhail Nesterov, Russia, 19th century
Giotto (1267–1337): Nativity with an uninvolved Joseph but without Salome
- Denial of the virgin birth of Jesus
- Immaculate Conception of Mary
- Incarnation (Christianity)
- Perpetual virginity of Mary
- Kiddushin (betrothal) is far more binding than an engagement as we understand the term in modern Western culture; in fact, Maimonides speaks of a period of engagement before the kiddushin. Once kiddushin is complete, the relationship can only be dissolved by death or divorce. However, the spouses do not live together at that time, and the mutual obligations created by the marital relationship do not take effect until the nisuin is complete.
- Carrigan 2000, p. 1359.
- Hurtado 2005, p. 318.
- Bruner 2004, p. 37.
- Ware 1993, p. unpaginated.
- Barclay 1998, p. 55.
- Robinson 2009, p. 111.
- Lincoln 2013, p. 99.
- Morris 1992, p. 31–32.
- Carroll 2012, p. 39.
- Hurtado 2005, p. 328.
- Lincoln 2013, p. 195–196, 258.
- Schowalter 1993, p. 790.
- Lachs 1987, p. 6.
- Casey 1991, p. 152.
- Kodell 1992, p. 939.
- Welburn 2008, p. 2.
- Jewish Virtual Library: Marriage in Judaism
- USCCB Luke 1:34 commentary Mary’s questioning response is a denial of sexual relations and is used by Luke to lead to the angel’s declaration about the Spirit’s role in the conception of this child (Lk 1:35). According to Luke, the virginal conception of Jesus takes place through the holy Spirit, the power of God, and therefore Jesus has a unique relationship to Yahweh: he is Son of God.
- Jewish Encyclopedia: Adultery Sexual intercourse of a married woman with any man other than her husband. The crime can be committed only by and with a married woman; for the unlawful intercourse of a married man with an unmarried woman is not technically adultery in the Jewish law.
- Jewish Virtual Library: Adultery Adultery is prohibited in the Decalogue (Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17), where it is listed between murder and theft (cf. Jer. 7:9; Ezek. 16:38; Hos. 4:2; Ps. 50:18; Prov. 6:30 ff.; Job 24:14–15) among offenses against one's fellow. The extramarital intercourse of a married man is not per se a crime in biblical or later Jewish law. This distinction stems from the economic aspect of Israelite marriage: the wife is the husband's possession, and adultery constitutes a violation of the husband's exclusive right to her; but the wife, as the husband's possession, has no such right to him. In other words, a man cannot commit adultery.
- USCCB Matthew 1:19 commentary as a devout observer of the Mosaic law, Joseph wished to break his union with someone whom he suspected of gross violation of the law. It is commonly said that the law required him to do so, but the texts usually given in support of that view, e.g., Dt 22:20–21 do not clearly pertain to Joseph’s situation...the penalty for proved adultery was death by stoning; cf. Dt 22:21–23.
- Chabad Devarim - Deuteronomy - Chapter 24 [In this case] he has an obligation to divorce her, lest she find favor in his eyes [and he might consequently wish to keep her, which he must not do, since she had committed an act of impropriety]. — [Gittin 90b]
- Sweeney 1996, p. 161.
- France 2007, pp. 56-57.
- Lincoln 2013, p. 21-25.
- Boring & Craddock 2009, p. 12.
- Fredriksen 2008, p. 7.
- Reddish 2011, p. 13.
- Lincoln 2013, p. 144.
- Hurtado 2005, p. 318–319, 325.
- Loewe 1996, p. 184.
- Kärkkäinen 2009, p. 175.
- McGuckin 2004, p. 286.
- Paget 2010, p. 360.
- Wahlde 2015, p. 62-63.
- Voorst 2000, p. 117.
- Cook 2011, p. unpaginated.
- Evans 1998, p. 450.
- Nothaft 2014, p. 564.
- Simpler 1990, p. 396.
- O'Sullivan 2005, p. 14–15.
- Peltomaa 2001, p. 127.
- Guiley 2004, p. 183.
- Ross 1996, p. 99.
- Grabar 1968, p. 130.
- Akyol, Mustafa (2017). The Islamic Jesus. St. Martin's Publishing Group. ISBN 9781250088703.
- Muddiman, John; Barton, John, eds. (2010). The Gospels. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199580255.
- Barclay, William (1998). The Apostles' Creed. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9781250088703.
- Barth, Karl (2004). Church Dogmatics: The doctrine of the word of God. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0567050694.
- BeDuhn, Jason (2015). "The New Marcion" (PDF). Forum. 3 (Fall 2015): 163–179.
- Bell, Richard (2012). The Origin of Islam in Its Christian Environment. Routledge. ISBN 9781136260674.
- Brown, Raymond E. (1973). The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0809117680.
- Brown, Raymond E. (1999). The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300140088.
- Boring, M. Eugene; Craddock, Fred B. (2009). The People's New Testament Commentary. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780664235925.
- Bruner, Frederick (2004). Matthew 1-12. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802811189.
- Carrigan, Henry L. (2000), "Virgin Birth", in Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.), Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Eerdmans, ISBN 9789053565032
- Carroll, John T. (2000). "Eschatology". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.
- Carroll, John T. (2012). Luke: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664221065.
- Casey, Maurice (1991). From Jewish Prophet to Gentile God: The Origins and Development of New Testament Christology. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664227654.
- Childs, Brevard S (2001). Isaiah. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664221430.
- Chouinard, Larry (1997), Matthew, College Press, ISBN 978-0899006284
- Collinge, William J. (2012). Historical Dictionary of Catholicism. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810879799.
- Coyle, Kathleen (1996), Mary in the Christian Tradition (revised ed.), Gracewing Publishing, ISBN 978-0852443804
- Cook, Michael J. (2011), "Jewish Perspectives on Jesus", in Burkett, Delbert (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Jesus, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 9781444351750
- Davidson, John (2005). The Gospel Of Jesus: In Search Of His Original Teachings. Clear Press. ISBN 978-1904555148.
- Deiss, Lucien (1996). Joseph, Mary, Jesus. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0814622551.
- Dorman, T.M. (1995). "Virgin Birth". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (ed.). International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: Q-Z. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802837844.
- Evans, Craig (1998), "Jesus in non-Christian Sources", in Chilton, Bruce; Evans, Craig (eds.), Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research, BRILL, ISBN 9004111425
- France, R.T. (2007). The Gospel of Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802825018.
- Fredriksen, Paula (2008). From Jesus to Christ: The Origins of the New Testament Images of Jesus. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300164107.
- Grabar, André (1968). Christian Iconography: A Study of Its Origins. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780710062376.
- Guiley, Rosemary (2004). The Encyclopedia of Angels. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-5023-6.
- Gregg, D. Larry (2000). "Docetism". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. (eds.). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9789053565032.
- Hendrickson, Peter A.; Jenson, Bradley C.; Lundell, Randi H. (2015). Luther and Bach on the Magnificat. Wipf and Stock. ISBN 9781625641205.
- Hurtado, Larry (2005). Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802831675.
- Kärkkäinen, V.-N (2009), "Christology", in Dyrness, William A.; Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti (eds.), Global Dictionary of Theology, InterVarsity Press, ISBN 9780830878116
- Kodell, Jerome (1992). "Luke". In Karris, Robert J. (ed.). The Collegeville Bible Commentary: New Testament, NAB. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0814622117.
- Koester, Helmut (2000). Introduction to the New Testament: History and literature of early Christianity. 2. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110149708.
- Kugler, Robert; Hartin, Patrick (2009). An Introduction to the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846365.
- Lachs, Samuel T. (1987). A Rabbinic Commentary of the New Testament: the Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. KTAV Publishing House. ISBN 978-0881250893.
- Lincoln, Andrew (2013). Born of a Virgin?. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802869258.
- Loewe, William P. (1996). The College Student's Introduction to Christology. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814650189.
- Marsh, Clive; Moyise, Steve (2006). Jesus and the Gospels. A&C Black. ISBN 978-0567040732.
- Marthaler, Berard L. (2007). The Creed: The Apostolic Faith in Contemporary Theology. Twenty-Third Publications. ISBN 9780896225374.
- McGuckin, John Anthony (2004). The Westminster Handbook to Patristic Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664223960.
- Miller, John W. (2008). "The Miracle of Christ's Birth". In Ellens, J. Harold (ed.). Miracles. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0275997236.
- Morris, Leon (1992). The Gospel According to Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0851113388.
- Nothaft, C. Philipp E. (2014). Medieval Latin Christian Texts on the Jewish Calendar: A Study with Five Editions and Translations. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004274129.
- O'Sullivan, Daniel E. (2005). Marian devotion in thirteenth-century French lyric. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0802038859.
- Paget, James Carleton (2010). Jews, Christians and Jewish Christians in Antiquity. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 9783161503122.
- Reddish, Mitchell (2011). An Introduction to The Gospels. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9781426750083.
- Peltomaa, Leena Mari (2001). The image of the Virgin Mary in the Akathistos hymn. Brill. ISBN 9004120882.
- Reynolds, Gabriel Said (2018). The Qur'an and the Bible: Text and Commentary. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300181326.
- Robinson, Bernard P. (2009). "Matthew's Nativity Stories". In Corley, Jeremy (ed.). New Perspectives on the Nativity. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780567613790.
- Ross, Leslie (1996). Medieval Art: A Topical Dictionary. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313293290.
- Saldarini, Anthony (2003). "Matthew". In Dunn, James D.G.; Rogerson, John William (eds.). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802837110.
- Saritoprak, Zeki (2014). Islam's Jesus. Tampa: University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-4940-3.
- Sawyer, W. Thomas (1990). "Mary". In Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey (eds.). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 978-0865543737.
- Schowalter, Daniel N. (1993). "Virgin Birth of Christ". In Metzger, B.M.; Coogan, D. (eds.). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199743919.
- Simpler, Steven (1990). "Hymn". In Mills, Watson E.; Bullard, Roger Aubrey (eds.). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865543737.
- Sweeney, Marvin A (1996). Isaiah 1–39: with an introduction to prophetic literature. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0802841001.
- Turner, David L. (2008). Matthew. Baker. ISBN 978-0-8010-2684-3.
- Tyson, Joseph B. (2006). Marcion and Luke-Acts: A Defining Struggle. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 9781570036507.
- Voorst, Robert van (2000). Jesus Outside the New Testament. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802843685.
- Wahlde, Urban von (2015). Gnosticism, Docetism, and the Judaisms of the First Century. Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780567656599.
- Ware, Timothy (1993). The Orthodox Church: An Introduction to Eastern Christianity. Penguin. ISBN 9780141925004.
- Weaver, Rebeccah H. (2008), "Jesus in early Christianity", in Benedetto, Robert; Duke, James O (eds.), The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History: The early, medieval, and Reformation eras, Westminster John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0664224165
- Welburn, Andrew J. (2008). From a Virgin Womb: The "Apocalypse of Adam" and the Virgin Birth. BRILL. ISBN 9789004163768.
- Wilson, Frank E. (1989). Faith and Practice. Harrisburg, PA: Church Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9780819224576.
- Zebiri, Kate (March 2000). "Contemporary Muslim Understanding of the Miracles of Jesus". The Muslim World. 90 (1–2): 71–90. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.2000.tb03682.x.
Virgin birth of Jesus
Gabriel announces John's
birth to Zechariah
| New Testament
Mary visits Elisabeth